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  1. Students are expected to read the 'essential readings' under the lectures and tutorials each week in time for the tutorial. Other tutorial readings will be allocated on a week by week basis.

     

  2. General literature 6 items
    Some relevant books that you may want to look at. Particular chapters are highlighted in specific weeks.
    1. Conservation: linking ecology, economics, and culture - Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Peter Coppolillo 2005

      Book  an multi-disciplinary text book linking social and natural sciences - with the practical aim of improving conservation

    2. Environmental anthropology: a historical reader - Michael Dove, Carol Carpenter 2008

      Book  The introduction provides a good overview of how environmental anthropology has changed

    3. Political ecology: a critical introduction - Paul Robbins 2012

      Book  an accessible intro to the expanding body of research that uses a political ecology lens

    4. Conservation biology for all - Navjot S. Sodhi, Paul R. Ehrlich 2009

      Book  Available online for free at: https://conbio.org/publications/free-textbook/ good short chapters on key topics in conservation - from a more natural science perspective

    5. Conservation is our government now: the politics of ecology in Papua New Guinea - Paige West 2006

      Book  a great ethnography about the politics of a conservation and development project

    6. The Big Conservation Lie - John Mbaria 15 Mar. 2017

      Book  a recent (and polemical) critique of the African conservation paradigm and its colonial roots

  3. Week 1 19 items
    1. Lecture 1 Historical & contemporary human impacts on ecosystems & biodiversity 19 items
      After a general introduction to the course, we will begin by taking a broad scale examination of humans as drivers of ecosystem change and biodiversity loss, from prehistory to the present day. We look at patterns, and the direct and indirect causes. We will focus in on how human use of fire has shaped ecosystems, and the impacts of introduced species. We will examine the scientific evidence for human-induced extinctions in the Pleistocene, with waves of colonization, and in the current era. Are the impacts on ecosystems and the climate so dramatic that we should consider ourselves in a new epoch – the Anthropocene? What implications does this have for how conservation is defined?
      1. The Functions of Biological Diversity in an Age of Extinction - S. Naeem, J. E. Duffy, E. Zavaleta 15/06/2012

        Article Recommended

      2. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations - M. Lenzen, D. Moran, K. Kanemoto, B. Foran 2012-6

        Article Recommended

      3. The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene - C. N. Waters, J. Zalasiewicz, C. Summerhayes, A. D. Barnosky 08/01/2016

        Article Recommended

      4. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities - Norman Myers, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca 2000-2-24

        Article 

      5. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis

        Document  Biodiversity synthesis for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We'll be having a look at this together in the lecture.

      6. The Anthropocene: conceptual and historical perspectives - W. Steffen, J. Grinevald, P. Crutzen, J. McNeill 13/03/2011

        Article Recommended

      7. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security - C. K. Khoury, A. D. Bjorkman, H. Dempewolf, J. Ramirez-Villegas 18/03/2014

        Article 

  4. Week 2 25 items
    1. Tutorial 1 evidence for historic and contemporary human induced extinctions 14 items
      Think about: - the evidence of human on biodiversity and ecosystems through time; - what is the evidence that impacts are attributable to earliest human colonists? - what issues remain in debate? - how have later waves of colonisation impacted ecosystems? - what factors make certain species vulnerable to extinction? - what is the evidence for and levels of uncertainty around current rates of extinction? Has the sixth mass extinction arrived?
      1. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction - G. Ceballos, P. R. Ehrlich, A. D. Barnosky, A. Garcia 19/06/2015

        Article Essential

      2. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection - S. L. Pimm, C. N. Jenkins, R. Abell, T. M. Brooks 30/05/2014

        Article Essential

      3. Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans - Eline D. Lorenzen, David Nogués-Bravo, Ludovic Orlando, Jaco Weinstock 2011-11-2

        Article Recommended

      4. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change - C. Sandom, S. Faurby, B. Sandel, J.-C. Svenning 04/06/2014

        Article Recommended

      5. Climate change not to blame for late Quaternary megafauna extinctions in Australia - Frédérik Saltré, Marta Rodríguez-Rey, Barry W. Brook, Christopher N Johnson 2016-1-29

        Article Recommended

      6. Humans, megafauna and environmental change in tropical Australia - MICHAEL I. BIRD, LINDSAY B. HUTLEY, MICHAEL J. LAWES, JON LLOYD 07/2013

        Article Recommended

      7. The Aftermath of Megafaunal Extinction: Ecosystem Transformation in Pleistocene Australia - S. Rule, B. W. Brook, S. G. Haberle, C. S. M. Turney 22/03/2012

        Article Recommended

      8. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? - Anthony D. Barnosky, Nicholas Matzke, Susumu Tomiya, Guinevere O. U. Wogan 2011-3-3

        Article Recommended

    2. Lecture 2 Conservation: definitions, history and current practices 11 items
      This week we look at how conservation is affected by different understandings of what nature is, and how ecosystems work. We examine the question of what constitutes ‘conservation’ by humans. Thirdly, we trace the historical roots of the modern conservation movement from its colonial roots and the preservation of wilderness, which continue to influence thought and practice today in the form of protected areas, to sustainable use, and broader ecosystem approaches and community-based conservation. Conservation is not a monolithic whole, and the lecture will focus on the shifting configuration of institutions, philosophies, trends, and interventions aimed at modifying human behaviour.
      1. What Is Conservation Science? - Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier 11/2012

        Article Recommended

      2. Against extinction: the story of conservation - W. M. Adams 2004

        Book 

      3. Nature unbound: conservation, capitalism and the future of protected areas - Dan Brockington, Rosaleen Duffy, Jim Igoe 2008

        Book 

      4. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services - Robert Costanza, Rudolf de Groot, Paul Sutton, Sander van der Ploeg 05/2014

        Article 

      5. Getting the measure of biodiversity - Andy Purvis, Andy Hector 2000-5-11

        Article 

      6. Half-Earth or Whole Earth? Radical ideas for conservation, and their implications - Bram Büscher, Robert Fletcher, Dan Brockington, Chris Sandbrook 07/2017

        Article 

  5. Week 3 18 items
    1. Tutorial 2 What are conservationists trying to conserve, how and why? 8 items
      Think about the following: - how is nature conceptualised by conservationists and how does that affect the practice of conservation? - how have these ideas changed through time? - including ideas of nature vs culture, wilderness, and more recently biodiversity and ecosystem services - what are the different philosophical bases for conservation and how do they affect its practice?
      1. Against extinction: the story of conservation - W. M. Adams 2004

        Book Essential Chapter 5 on protected areas and wilderness

      2. Incorporating the Social–Ecological Approach in Protected Areas in the Anthropocene - Ignacio Palomo, Carlos Montes, Berta Martín-López, José A. González 01/03/2014

        Article Recommended

      3. Opinion: Why protect nature? Rethinking values and the environment - Kai M. A. Chan, Patricia Balvanera, Karina Benessaiah, Mollie Chapman 09/02/2016

        Article Recommended

      4. The new conservation debate: The view from practical ethics - Thaddeus R. Miller, Ben A. Minteer, Leon-C. Malan 03/2011

        Article Recommended

      5. The Trouble with Wilderness: Or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature - William Cronon 01/1996

        Article Optional A classic critique of the idea of wilderness

    2. Lecture 3 Managing the Commons 10 items
      Effective interventions for sustainable ecosystem governance require understanding human behaviour and decision-making. We look at three theoretical perspectives for understanding conservation behaviour and environmental change. Predicated on rational action, evolutionary ecology and micro-economics have been used to study how individuals use resources. The ‘tragedy of the commons’ is the classic way to envisage the vulnerability of open access resources to overexploitation, but this assumes that individuals act unguided by expectation, rules and institutions. Instead, common property regimes governed by informal institutions which deal with non-cooperation have been shown to successfully sustainably manage resources. Through the lens of political ecology we situate these local institutions within larger political and economic spheres.
      1. Conservation: linking ecology, economics, and culture - Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Peter Coppolillo 2005

        Book Recommended Chapter 5 on the evolutionary and economic approach to understanding natural resource use (methodological individualism)

      2. Political ecology: a critical introduction - Paul Robbins 2012

        Book Recommended Chapter 1 (Introduction); Chapter 8 (on environmental degradation); Chapter 9 (on conservation and control)

      3. Conservation and sustainable use: a handbook of techniques - E. J. Milner-Gulland, J. M. Rowcliffe 2007

        Book  Chapter 1 on bioeconomic systems; Chapter 4 on assessing sustainability

      4. Human Behavioural Ecology and Environmental Conservation - Joel T. Heinen, Roberta (‘Bobbi’) S. Low 1992-6

        Article  the evolutionary perspective on environmental problems

      5. Intraspecific Prey Choice by Amazonian Hunters [and Comments and Reply] - Michael Alvard, Janis B. Alcorn, Richard E. Bodmer, Raymond Hames, Kim Hill, Jean Hudson, R. Lee Lyman, Rajindra K. Puri, Eric A. Smith and Allyn Maclean Stearman 1995

        Article 

      6. The Tragedy of the Commons 13/12/1968

        Article  The classic text - worth a revisit.

      7. Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action - Elinor Ostrom 2015

        Book  The classic text on common property resource management. Presentation of 8 design principles that contribute to sustainable management.

  6. Week 4 24 items
    1. Tutorial 3 Wildlife hunting 11 items
      Wildlife is an important source of protein and income for millions of people. Species are becoming threatened as demand increases in urban population and globally for meat, luxury products and medicines. Focusing on the bushmeat and illegal wildlife trade in Africa, we look at the factors driving harvesting of species, the economics of exploitation, and sustainability of current patterns. Think about - the economic, cultural and political factors driving harvesting patterns; - how sustainability is understood; - the relationship between poverty and exploitation; - the effectiveness and impacts on communities of current strategies to reduce over-exploitation; - how institutions for sustainable management can be developed.
      1. Essential readings 2 items
        1. INSTITUTIONS AND THE ENVIRONMENT - Elinor Ostrom 09/2008

          Article Essential An accessible overview of Ostrom's work on institutions for CPRs, translating her eight design principles to less prescriptive questions

        2. The bushmeat trade in African savannas: Impacts, drivers, and possible solutions - Peter Andrew Lindsey, Guy Balme, Matthew Becker, Colleen Begg 04/2013

          Article Essential Overview of the bushmeat problem in Africa

      2. Recommended readings 9 items
        choose one of these
        1. Economic and geographic drivers of wildlife consumption in rural Africa - J. S. Brashares, C. D. Golden, K. Z. Weinbaum, C. B. Barrett 23/08/2011

          Article Recommended overarching analysis and synthesis of urban/rural and poverty/wealth differences in consumption

        2. Evidence for post-depletion sustainability in a mature bushmeat market - GUY COWLISHAW, SAMANTHA MENDELSON, J. MARCUS ROWCLIFFE 09/06/2005

          Article Recommended

        3. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting - Rosaleen Duffy, Freya A. V. St John, Bram Büscher, Dan Brockington 02/2016

          Article Recommended

    2. Lecture 4 Pastoralist ecology and resource management institutions 13 items
      The lecture will introduce the human ecology of pastoralist systems around the world. We will look at pastoralist land management strategies and how rangelands have been managed as common property regimes. Pastoralist systems have generated huge debate about ecosystems, sustainable use and conservation. We will look at how the ways in which ecosystems are modelled and envisaged to function work alongside political interests to shape environmental policy. Focusing in on two groups (Maasai and Tibetans) will look at the kinds of social, economic and environmental challenges that pastoralists are facing, and how they are adapting their livelihoods and lifestyles.
      1. Ecology of African pastoralist societies - Katherine Homewood c2008

        Book Recommended Chapter 3

      2. The future of pastoralism: an introduction - J. ZINSSTAG, E. SCHELLING, B. BONFOH, L. CRUMP 01/08/2016

        Article Recommended

      3. Challenges to the ‘new’ rangeland science - Richard M. Cowling 2000-8

        Article  The conventional wisdom.

      4. What drives the vulnerability of pastoralists to global environmental change? A qualitative meta-analysis - Feliu López-i-Gelats, Evan D.G. Fraser, John F. Morton, Marta G. Rivera-Ferre 07/2016

        Article 

      5. Co-existence of wildlife and pastoralism on extensive rangelands: competition or compatibility? - Maryam Niamir-Fuller, Carol Kerven, Robin Reid, Eleanor Milner-Gulland 2012

        Article 

  7. Week 5 33 items
    1. Tutorial 4 Case studies on pastoralism: Maasai and Tibetans 12 items
      Read the essential reading and at least one paper on one of the case studies. Think about - theory and evidence for rangeland dynamics and degradation; - how pastoralists are adapting and changing their livelihoods; - how environmental, social and policy changes have impacted upon pastoralist institutions, well-being and ecosystems.
      1. Essential readings 1 item
      2. Maasai case study 6 items
        1. Pastoralist livelihoods and wildlife revenues in East Africa: a case for coexistence? - Katherine M Homewood, Pippa Trench, Daniel Brockington 2012

          Article Recommended

      3. Tibetan plateau case study 5 items
        1. Pastoralist Decision-Making on the Tibetan Plateau - Emily T. Yeh, Leah H. Samberg, Gaerrang, Emily Volkmar 2017-6

          Article Recommended

    2. Lecture 5 'Traditional ecological knowledge' and indigenous peoples 21 items
      The concept of ‘traditional ecological knowledge’ often promotes indigenous people as models of conservation. This week we look at how indigenous peoples and the conservation agenda have become intimately linked. We examine the concept of indigeneity and the politics involved and trace the changes in conservation policy and practice regarding indigenous peoples. We look at how different scholars have understood indigenous knowledge and the complexities involved in efforts to link scientific and local knowledge systems in natural resource management.
      1. The Intersections of Biological Diversity and Cultural Diversity: Towards Integration - Sarah Pilgrim, Jules Pretty, Bill Adams, Fikret Berkes 2009

        Article Recommended

      2. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation - Michael C. Gavin, Joe McCarter, Aroha Mead, Fikret Berkes 03/2015

        Article Recommended

      3. Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation - Madhav Gadgil, Fikret Berkes and Carl Folke 1993

        Article Recommended

      4. Misreading the African landscape: society and ecology in a forest-savanna mosaic - James Fairhead, Melissa Leach 1996

        Book 

      5. Indigenous management of tropical forest ecosystems: the case of the Kayap� indians of the Brazilian Amazon - Darrell Addison Posey 1985

        Article  early, important work arguing the importance of indigenous environmental knowledge

      6. Beyond ritual and economics: Maasai lion hunting and conservation politics - Mara J. Goldman, Joana Roque de Pinho, Jennifer Perry 10/2013

        Article 

      7. The Importance of Taboos and Social Norms to Conservation in Madagascar - JULIA P. G. JONES, MIJASOA M. ANDRIAMAROVOLOLONA, NEAL HOCKLEY 08/2008

        Article 

      8. The Links between Protected Areas, Faiths, and Sacred Natural Sites - NIGEL DUDLEY, LIZA HIGGINS-ZOGIB, STEPHANIE MANSOURIAN 06/2009

        Article 

      9. Decolonizing methodologies: research and Indigenous peoples - Linda Tuhiwai Smith 1999

        Book 

  8. Week 6 21 items
    1. Tutorial 5 indigenous knowledge & conservation 7 items
      Read the essential reading and one or two others (distribute them in your tutorial group so you're not all reading the same thing!). Think about: - how and if indigenous ecological knowledge differs from scientific knowledge - the aims, benefits of projects aiming to integrate knowledge types and produce co-management arrangements - the power and politics and outcomes of such projects - the potential for more socially just processes of engagement with indigenous knowledge and peoples for sustainability
      1. Perceiving the Environment in Finnish Lapland - TIM INGOLD, TERHI KURTTILA 11/2000

        Article Recommended

      2. Co-management and the co-production of knowledge: Learning to adapt in Canada's Arctic - Derek Armitage, Fikret Berkes, Aaron Dale, Erik Kocho-Schellenberg 2011-8

        Article Recommended

      3. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management - Henrik Moller, Fikret Berkes, Philip O'Brian Lyver, Mina Kislalioglu 2004

        Article Recommended

    2. Lecture 6 Pro-poor and community-based conservation 14 items
      Lecture 6 Pro-poor and community-based conservation Patterns of biodiversity are skewed towards rural areas of the Global South, with implications for the social justice of conservation. The question of how to reconcile conservation and human development is a key policy issue. But how does the concept of ‘win-win’ or pro-poor conservation really play out in practice? This lecture will look at the theory behind community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), and the evidence for how they work on the ground. We will also explore the broader concepts of human well-being and equity/justice as holistic models of social development.
      1. Justice and conservation: The need to incorporate recognition - Adrian Martin, Brendan Coolsaet, Esteve Corbera, Neil M. Dawson 05/2016

        Article Recommended

      2. Just conservation: biodiversity, wellbeing and sustainability - Adrian Martin 2017

        Book Recommended Chapter 3 on how injustice can undermine conservation Chapter 7 on move from conservation & development to a justice approach

      3. Beyond exclusion: alternative approaches to biodiversity conservation in the developing tropics - Sharachchandra Lele, Peter Wilshusen, Dan Brockington, Reinmar Seidler 2010-5

        Article 

      4. From hope to crisis and back again? A critical history of the global CBNRM narrative - WOLFRAM DRESSLER, BRAM BÜSCHER, MICHAEL SCHOON, DAN BROCKINGTON 2010-3

        Article 

      5. Parks and Peoples: The Social Impact of Protected Areas - Paige West, James Igoe, Dan Brockington 10/2006

        Article 

  9. Week 7 28 items
    1. Tutorial 6 The realities of community-based natural resource management 17 items
      Think about: - how CBNRM is conceived and then how it plays out on the ground; - the politics of participation; - what is the community in CBNRM? - who benefits and who loses? - the potential for a refocus on equity and justice to support better outcomes for people and biodiversity Read the essential readings and choose a paper from the case studies. If you are focusing on this topic for the exam, read papers from one or two of the case studies.
      1. Conservation is our government now: the politics of ecology in Papua New Guinea - Paige West 2006

        Book Essential Chapter 2

      2. Case study 1: Community forest management in Tanzania 5 items
      3. Case study 2: Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania 5 items
      4. Case study 3: Conservancies in Namibia 5 items
    2. Lecture 7 Ecosystem services & the biodiversity economy 11 items
      1. Ecosystem-Service Science and the Way Forward for Conservation - P. R. Armsworth, K. M. A. Chan, G. C. Daily, P. R. Ehrlich 18/12/2007

        Article 

      2. Stop the financialization of Nature on Vimeo Monday, June 4, 2012 at 11:24 AM EST

        Audio-visual document 

  10. Week 8 10 items
    1. Tutorial 7 Market-based approaches to conservation 6 items
      1. Biodiversity offsetting 6 items
        1. Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice - Joseph W. Bull, K. Blake Suttle, Ascelin Gordon, Navinder J. Singh 2013-7

          Article 

        2. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset - Cécile Bidaud, JuliaP.G. Jones, Kate Schreckenberg, Manolotsoa Rabeharison 2017

          Article 

        3. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies - Rebecca Kormos, Cyril F. Kormos, Tatyana Humle, Annette Lanjouw 2014-11-5

          Article 

        4. Outcomes from 10 years of biodiversity offsetting - Philip Gibbons, Andrew Macintosh, Amy Louise Constable, Kiichiro Hayashi 27/11/2017

          Article 

      2. Payment for Ecosystem Services 0 items
    2. Lecture 8 Evidence, conservation policy, and decision-making + preparation for the negotiation exercise 4 items
      1. Conservation, evidence and policy - William. M. Adams, Chris Sandbrook 2013-7

        Article 

      2. Adaptive co-management for social–ecological complexity - Derek R Armitage, Ryan Plummer, Fikret Berkes, Robert I Arthur 03/2009

        Article 

  11. Week 9 0 items
    1. Tutorial 8 Conflict & decision-making 0 items
    2. Lecture 9 Negotiation exercise 0 items
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