globe
  1. Basic Texts 80 items
    This is a list of historical works which provide excellent introductions to the different periods covered in the course. Prior to the start of the course, students should at the very least read Cameron 2012 to ensure that they have a basic understanding of the major historical developments in this period.
    1. Introductory books to the period 3 items
      1. The Mediterranean world in late antiquity, 395-700 AD - Averil Cameron, Averil Cameron 2012

        Book 

    2. Historical overviews 30 items
      1. Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world - G. W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, Oleg Grabar 1999

        Book 

      2. Byzantium in the Iconoclast era (ca 680-850): a history - Leslie Brubaker, John F. Haldon 2010

        Book 

      3. The fall of the Western Roman Empire: an archaeological and historical perspective - Neil Christie 2011

        Book 

      4. Introduction to early medieval Western Europe, 300-900: the sword, the plough and the book - Matthew Innes 2007

        Book 

      5. The Oxford handbook of late antiquity - Scott Fitzgerald Johnson c2012

        Book  E-Book

      6. The Byzantine Republic: people and power in New Rome - Anthony Kaldellis 2015

        Book 

      7. Ruling the later Roman Empire - Christopher Kelly 2004

        Book 

      8. Theory and practice in late antique archaeology - Luke Lavan, William Bowden 2003

        Book  E-Book

      9. A history of the later Roman Empire, AD 284-641: the transformation of the ancient world - Stephen Mitchell 2007

        Book 

      10. A companion to late antiquity - Philip Rousseau, Jutta Raithel 2009

        Book  E-Book

      11. The fall of Rome: and the end of civilization - Bryan Ward-Perkins 2005

        Book 

    3. Archaeology 22 items
      1. Recent research on the late antique countryside - William Bowden, Luke Lavan, Carlos Machado 2004

        Book  E-Book

      2. The idea and ideal of the town between late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages - Gian Pietro Brogiolo, J. B. Ward-Perkins c1999

        Book 

      3. The fall of the Western Roman Empire: an archaeological and historical perspective - Neil Christie 2011

        Book 

      4. Religious diversity in late antiquity - David M. Gwynn, Susanne Bangert, Luke Lavan 2010

        Book  E-Book

      5. The sixth century: production, distribution, and demand - Richard Hodges, William Bowden 1998

        Book 

      6. Mohammed, Charlemagne & the origins of Europe: archaeology and the Pirenne thesis - Richard Hodges, David Whitehouse 1983

        Book 

      7. Recent research in late-antique urbanism - Luke Lavan, William Bowden 2001

        Book 

      8. Objects in context, objects in use: material spatiality in late antiquity - Luke Lavan, Ellen Swift, Toon Putzeys 2007

        Book  E-Book

      9. Theory and practice in late antique archaeology - Luke Lavan, William Bowden 2003

        Book  E-Book

      10. Technology in transition: A.D. 300-650 - Luke Lavan, Enrico Zanini, Alexander Constantine Sarantis 2007

        Book  E-Book

      11. The archaeology of late antique "paganism" - Luke Lavan, Michael Mulryan 2011

        Book  E-Book

      12. Housing in late antiquity: from palaces to shops - Luke Lavan, Lale Özgenel, Alexander Constantine Sarantis 2007

        Book  E-Book

      13. War and warfare in late antiquity - Alexander Constantine Sarantis, Neil Christie 2013

        Book 

    4. SESSION 1: Late antiquity: origins, definitions and agendas 5 items
      What do we mean by late antiquity and what does it mean to different scholars today? The term Spätantike has been used by German art-historians since its popularisation by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century to describe late Roman art, but it gained a new meaning and a new currency in the Anglo-Saxon world with the publication of Peter Brown’s (1978) The World of Late Antiquity. Brown’s book not only presented ‘late antiquity’ as a coherent phase in human history, but radically shifted the debate away from the ‘Decline and Fall’ of the western Roman Empire to the new religious and cultural developments in the Eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia between 200 and 800. For Brown, late antiquity was not a time of recession and failure, but rather of new beginnings and tremendous creativity in religion, culture and literary society. In this first session, we will discuss the seminal works of Edward Gibbon and Henri Pirenne and their influence on scholarship of the late Roman and medieval Mediterranean, before turning to the Brownian model of late antiquity and its reception by scholars. What has the impact been on the research agendas of archaeologists and economic historians? In particular, we will focus on the issue of chronology. A vast literature has been devoted to debating when late antiquity starts in different regions, but even more charged is the question of when the period ends. Is it with the Muslim conquests and the end of Mediterranean political unity? Or do historical processes and archaeological patterns support the Brownian model of a ‘long late antiquity’ that extends to 800 or even later? Is late antiquity a useful periodization for us in this course or is it too broad to be meaningful?
      1. Essential Readings 5 items
        1. Read: 3 items
          1. Gibbon, E. (3rd ed. 1909-13) 'General Observations on the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West'. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London), iv. 160-9. ONLINE [PDF supplied]

          2. Mohammed & Charlemagne - Henri Pirenne 2012

            Book Essential E-Book, pages 147-84

        2. Then: 2 items
          1. Late antiquity on the eve of Islam 2013

            Book Essential

          2. Classics in progress: essays on ancient Greece and Rome - T. P. Wiseman 2002

            Book Essential pages 165-91

    5. Recommended Reading 5 items
      1. The Mediterranean world in late antiquity, 395-700 AD - Averil Cameron, Averil Cameron 2012

        Book Recommended

    6. Further Reading 15 items
      1. Introduction: Late Antiquity on the Eve of Islam

        Chapter  [See the very useful bibliography]

      2. Before and after Muḥammad: the first millennium refocused - Garth Fowden c2014

        Book 

      3. Mohammed, Charlemagne & the origins of Europe: archaeology and the Pirenne thesis - Richard Hodges, David Whitehouse 1983

        Book 

      4. “Late Antiquity and the Concept of Decline,” - J.H.W.G. Liebeschuetz

        Article  See edition in Main Library: HUMANITIES Pers Vol. 43-45, 1999-2001

  2. SESSION 2: Old materials, new aesthetics? Interpreting spolia, re-use and recycling 21 items
    Arguments for decline and collapse in late antiquity and the early middle ages are strongly influenced by the significant changes that we see in architecture, building practices, the choices of construction materials and the appropriation of buildings and spaces from the early Roman period. This seminar asks how we evaluate the archaeological evidence of spoliation, re-use, secondary occupation and recycling in late antiquity. Is the tendency to adapt and reuse rather than build anew, a sign of artistic and architectural decline and an index of generalized post-Roman economic and cultural collapse? Or is it a reflection of new aesthetic values or pragmatism on the part of their builders? We will consider in detail the role that the material practices of spoliation and re-use have played in models of decline, transformation and continuity in late antiquity.
    1. Essential 21 items
      **Bring to class an image or plan of site, buildings etc. which shows evidence of re-use, secondary occupation, spoliation etc. **
      1. Read first: 1 item
        1. The fall of Rome: and the end of civilization - Bryan Ward-Perkins 2005

          Book Essential Chapters I, V-VI, VIII.

      2. Then: 2 items
      3. Further reading: spolia 10 items
        1. Image against Nature - Finbarr Barry Flood 04/2006

          Article 

        2. Marble past, monumental present: building with antiquities in the mediaeval Mediterranean - Michael Greenhalgh 2009

          Book 

        3. The concept of spolia - D. Kinney

          Chapter 

      4. Further reading: ‘squatter occupation’, recycling and re-use 8 items
        1. Dopo la fine delle ville: le campagne dal VI al IX secolo : 11o Seminario sul Tardo Antico e l'Alto Medioevo, Gavi, 8-10 maggio 2004 - Seminario sul tardo antico e l'alto Medioevo in Italia settentrionale 2005

          Book  pages 251 - 262

  3. SESSION 3: Things fall apart: Barbarians, ethnicity and post-Roman state formation in the West 48 items
    In the first of three sessions that examines the new political regimes of the Mediterranean, we examine post-Roman state formation in the West. The collapse of the western Roman empire during the fifth century created a power vacuum in the western Mediterranean that was filled by barbarian kingdoms: Vandal Africa, Visigothic Spain, Ostrogothic Italy and Frankish Gaul. We will focus first on the controversial debates surrounding migration and ethnicity in this period. Has the concept of 'barbarian invasions' outlived its usefulness? Should we rather discuss periods of migration, or 'assimilation,’ with sporadic outbreaks of violence? How have archaeologists and historians tried to identify ‘barbarians’ in the archaeological record? Can we identify ‘ethnicity’ archaeologically? We will then discuss the impact of these new kingdoms on the society and economy of the post-Roman west and the strategies that the barbarian kings used to legitimise their rule.
    1. Essential (in this order) 4 items
      1. `Barbarians and ethnicity' - P. J. Geary

        Chapter Essential

      2. Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376–568 - Guy Halsall 2007

        Book Essential Read chapter 1 (to view off campus: 1. Click on 'get access' 2. Click on 'Log in via Shibboleth or Athens' 3. Search by keyword for University College London 4. Select and log in with your UCL details

      3. Ravenna, the Capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom

        Chapter Essential

    2. Case-studies 2 items
      1. The construction of identities in post-Roman Albania

        Chapter Essential Also at ISSUE DESK IOA LAV 1

      2. 'Social Relations and Domestic Space in the Maghreb' - E. Fentress

        Chapter Essential

    3. Recommended 20 items
      1. The Mausoleum of Theoderic and the Seven Wonders of the World - Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf

        Journal Recommended

      2. Fifth-century Gaul: a crisis of identity? - J. F. Drinkwater, Hugh Elton 1992

        Book Recommended

      3. Breakdown and barbarians - Simon Esmonde Cleary

        Chapter Recommended

      4. Telling the Difference: Signs of Ethnic Identity

        Chapter Recommended pages 17 - 69

      5. ‘Ethnic and Cultural Identities’ - S. Lucy

        Chapter 

    4. Further reading - Later Roman Empire 6 items
      1. The later Roman empire: AD 284-430 - Averil Cameron 1993

        Book 

      2. The Mediterranean world in late antiquity, 395-700 AD - Averil Cameron, Averil Cameron 2012

        Book 

      3. Ruling the later Roman Empire - Christopher Kelly 2004

        Book 

      4. A history of the later Roman Empire, AD 284-641: the transformation of the ancient world - Stephen Mitchell 2007

        Book 

    5. Further reading – The Germanic kingdoms 16 items
      1. Visigothic Spain, 409-711 - Roger Collins 2004

        Book 

      2. Les Vandales et l'Afrique - Christian Courtois, Algeria. Service des antiquités 1955

        Book 

      3. I barbari che presero Roma: il sacco del 410 e le sue conseguenze - Massimiliano Ghilardi, Gianluca Pilara dicembre 2010

        Book 

      4. Goths and Romans, 332-489 - P. J. Heather 1991

        Book 

      5. The Vandals - A. H. Merrills, Richard Miles 2010

        Book 

      6. Theoderic in Italy - John Moorhead 1992

        Book 

      7. La Hispania visigoda: del rey Ataúlfo a Don Rodrigo - Gisela Ripoll, Isabel Velázquez 1995

        Book 

      8. Victor of Vita: history of the Vandal persecution - John Moorhead, Victor 1992

        Book 

      9. XXIIIe Journées Internationales d'Archéologie mérovingienne: La Méditerranée et le monde mérovingien : temoins archéologiques : Arles, 11-13 octobre 2002 - Journées internationales d'archéologie mérovingienne, Association française d'archéologie mérovingienne 2002

        Book 

      10. History of the Goths - Herwig Wolfram, Thomas Dunlap 1988

        Book 

  4. SESSION 4: The empire strikes back: Roman imperialism in late antiquity 43 items
    The eastern Roman empire (often called Byzantium), based in Constantinople, continued to exist until it was conquered by the Turks in 1453. This session will examine how scholars have approached Roman empire-building and state power in late antiquity and the early middle ages, including the recent attempt of Kaldellis to rebrand Byzantium as the ‘nation-state’ of the Romans. We will then consider in detail society, culture and economy in Justinian I’s reign and his attempt to restore the Roman empire by reconquering the Roman west in the sixth century. How different was New Rome from Old Rome? And how successful was his attempt to re-integrate Africa, Italy and Spain under Roman rule. Finally, we will look at the much-reduced Byzantine state in Anatolia after the Arab conquests of the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa in the seventh century. Should Byzantium be considered an empire, a ‘commonwealth’ or a state?
    1. On empire and states, read first and compare: 2 items
      1. ‘The Byzantine Empire’ - J. Haldon

        Chapter Essential

    2. Then: 2 items
      1. The urban image of late antique Constantinople - Sarah Bassett 2004

        Book Essential Chapter 1

    3. Recommended 24 items
      1. Byzantium in the iconoclast era (c. 680-850): the sources ; an annotated survey - Leslie Brubaker, John F. Haldon c2001

        Book Recommended

      2. Byzantine matters - Averil Cameron 2014

        Book Recommended

      3. Debating urbanism within and beyond the walls, A.D. 300-700: proceedings of a conference held at the University of Leicester, 15th November 2008 - Denis Sami, Gavin Speed, University of Leicester. School of Archaeology and Ancient History c2010

        Book Recommended

      4. The Byzantine Dark Ages - Michael J. Decker 2016

        Book Recommended

      5. Two Romes: Rome and Constantinople in late antiquity - Lucy Grig, Gavin Kelly c2012

        Book Recommended

      6. The state and the tributary mode of production - John F. Haldon 1993

        Book Recommended

      7. The social history of Byzantium - John F. Haldon 2009

        Book Recommended

      8. The empire that would not die: the paradox of eastern Roman survival, 640-740 - John F. Haldon 2016

        Book Recommended

      9. Les hommes et la terre à Byzance du VIe au XIe siècle propriété et exploitation du sol / par Michel Kaplan. - Michel Kaplan, 1946- author. Centre de recherches d'histoire et de civilisations byzantines, issuing body.

        Book Recommended

      10. Three Christian capitals: topography and politics - Richard Krautheimer c1983

        Book Recommended

      11. The economic history of Byzantium: from the seventh through the fifteenth century - Angeliki E. Laiou, Charalampos Bouras, Dumbarton Oaks c2002

        Book Recommended

      12. The Cambridge companion to the Age of Justinian - Michael Maas c2005

        Book Recommended

      13. The economic history of Byzantium: from the seventh through the fifteenth century - Angeliki E. Laiou, Charalampos Bouras, Dumbarton Oaks c2002

        Book Recommended

      14. The Byzantine city in the sixth century: literary images and historical reality - Hélène Saradi, Hetaireia Messēniakōn Archaiologikōn Spoudōn 2006

        Book Recommended

    4. Further reading – Byzantium 15 items
      1. The urban image of late antique Constantinople - Sarah Bassett 2004

        Book 

      2. Inventing Byzantine iconoclasm - Leslie Brubaker, I. N. Wood 2011

        Book 

      3. The formation of Christendom - Judith Herrin 1987

        Book 

      4. The Byzantine Republic: people and power in New Rome - Anthony Kaldellis 2015

        Book 

      5. The grand strategy of the Byzantine Empire - Edward Luttwak 2009

        Book 

      6. Master builders of Byzantium - Robert G. Ousterhout c1999

        Book 

  5. SESSION 5: The transformation of the classical city: the view from the West 36 items
    The fate of the classical city has dominated archaeological discussion for decades. Cities underwent significant change during the course of late antiquity and the early medieval period. Key issues include the Christianization of urban space, urban fortification, the abandonment or appropriation of public monuments (baths, theatres, circus etc.) the movement of production into the city, encroachment and urban shrinkage.
    1. Read first: 2 items
      1. Urbes Extinctae: Archaeologies of and Approaches to Abandoned Classical Cities - N. Christie

        Chapter Essential pages 1 - 44

    2. Then: 3 items
    3. Recommended (general) 12 items
      1. 'The Ideology of Urban Burial' - G. Cantino Wataghin

        Article Recommended pages 147 - 181

      2. 'The Ideology of Urban Burial' - G. Cantino Wataghin

        Article Recommended

      3. The cities - Bryan Ward-Perkins

        Chapter Recommended

      4. Cities - Chris Wickham

        Chapter Recommended

      5. 'Urban Continuity?' - B. Ward-Perkins

        Chapter Recommended

    4. Western Mediterranean 7 items
      1. 'Classe: Archaeologies of a Lost City' - A. Augenti

        Chapter  pages 45 - 76

      2. Hispania in late antiquity: current perspectives - Kimberly Diane Bowes, Michael Kulikowski 2005

        Book 

      3. Fifth-century Gaul: a crisis of identity? - J. F. Drinkwater, Hugh Elton 1992

        Book 

      4. Ravenna in late antiquity - Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis 2010

        Book 

      5. Tarraco in Late Antiquity - S. Keay

        Chapter 

    5. Egypt and North Africa 6 items
      1. “Urban economies of Late Antique Cyrenaica' - A. Wilson

        Chapter 

    6. The Balkans and The Danube 6 items
      1. The transition to late antiquity: on the Danube and beyond - A. G. Poulter 2007

        Book 

  6. SESSION 6: The transformation of the classical city: the view from the East 33 items
    The debate about the fate of the classical city is particularly charged in the Eastern Mediterranean, where in much of the Levant, the gridded and colonnaded streets of the ‘classical’ Graeco-Roman city were replaced by irregular alleys, suqs (markets) and mosques effecting a transformation from polis (Greek ‘city’) to madina (Arabic – ‘city’) as Hugh Kennedy (1985) has described in an important article. But the Muslims did not simply take over the existing fabric, they built their own cities too: the amsar (garrison cities), palace-cities as well as other urban centres to fill trading, social or economic needs.
    1. Essential Reading. Read first and compare: 2 items
    2. Then: 2 items
      1. Amorium in the Byzantine Dark Ages (seventh to ninth centuries) - E.A. Ivison

        Chapter Essential

    3. The Levant 7 items
      1. Urbanism at Scythopolis-Bet Shean in the fourth to seventh centuries. - Tsafrir, Yoram ; צפריר, יורם, ; Avi-Tamar, Yoram ; אבי תמר, יורם Foerster, G ; פרסטר, גדעון ; Foerster, Gideon ; Forster, Gideon

        Journal 

    4. Greece and Asia Minor 12 items
      1. Recent research in late-antique urbanism - Luke Lavan, William Bowden 2001

        Book 

      2. Amorium in the Byzantine Dark Ages (seventh to ninth centuries). - E.A. Ivison

        Chapter 

      3. La ville en Grèce du IIIe au VIIe siècle - Spieser

        Chapter 

    5. The Islamic City – key texts 10 items
      1. How to found an Islamic city. - H. Kennedy

        Chapter 

      2. From Shahristan to Medina - Kennedy, Hugh ; Hugh Kennedy

        Journal 

      3. The city in the Islamic world - Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Renata Holod, Attilio Petruccioli, André Raymond 2008

        Book 

      4. Gravimetry - Wolfgang Torge 1989

        Book 

      5. An Urban Structure for the Early Islamic City - D. Whitcomb

        Chapter 

  7. SESSION 7: Empires Of Faith: Religion, Ritual And Community 44 items
    Building on our discussion of religious architecture and urban topography in Session 6 and 7, we will explore how archaeologists have studied religious change in late antiquity more broadly. Our focus will be on Christianity and its infrastructure from its establishment as the ‘state- sanctioned’ religion during the early-mid 4th century AD and its subsequent spread across the Mediterranean. The seminar asks how we can use evidence from images, religious material culture and the archaeological remains of churches to understand ritual practice, the fashioning of new religious communities and the role of the church as an institution in late antiquity. We will compare and contrast scholarly approaches to the spread of Christianity with those to the spread of Islam after the Arab conquests. How did a religion that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century spread so far and fast? How and when did the Muslim minority become the majority? What were Muslim-Christian relations like in this formative period? Building on our discussion of Islam in Session 5, we will consider whether archaeologists can identify Muslim practices in the material record and the potentials and pitfalls of attempting to map conversion to Islam.
    1. Essential 4 items
      1. The archaeology of Islam - Timothy Insoll 1999

        Book Essential Chapter 1

    2. Recommended 14 items
      1. Provincial Cilicia and the archaeology of temple conversion - Richard Bayliss 2004

        Book Recommended

      2. Private worship, public values, and religious change in late antiquity - Kimberly Diane Bowes 2008

        Book Recommended

      3. RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY IN LATE ANTIQUITY: AN INTRODUCTION - David M. Gwynn, Susanne Bangert 01/01/2010

        Article Recommended

      4. The End of the Temples: Towards a new narrative? - L. Lavan

        Chapter Recommended

      5. Monastic Landscapes - J. Patrich

        Chapter Recommended

    3. Further reading - Christianity and the End of Paganism 13 items
      1. The definition and enforcement of orthodoxy - Cameron, Averil (Editor) ; Ward-Perkins, Bryan (Editor) ; Whitby, Michael (Editor)

        Book 

      2. An age of saints?: power, conflict and dissent in early medieval Christianity - Peter Sarris, Matthew Dal Santo, Phil Booth 2011

        Book 

      3. Hellenism in late antiquity - G. W. Bowersock 1990

        Book 

      4. The archaeology of religious hatred in the Roman and early medieval world - Eberhard Sauer 2003

        Book  pages 53-63; 79-88; 89-101.

    4. Further Reading - Islam 13 items
      1. Islam: the view from the edge - Richard W. Bulliet 1994

        Book 

      2. The Koran: a very short introduction - Michael Cook 2000

        Book 

      3. The shape of the holy: early Islamic Jerusalem - Oleg Grabar, Abeer Audeh, Said Nuseibeh, Mohammad Al-Asad c1996

        Book 

      4. The archaeology of Islam - Timothy Insoll 1999

        Book 

  8. SESSION 8: From Villa To Village: The Late Antique Countryside 34 items
    Far less attention has been paid to the transformation of the rural landscape and changing settlement patterns through time. This seminar explores the diversity of regional patterns and variety of explanatory models in the Mediterranean. How has field-survey altered our understanding of the late antique countryside? Are there different trends in the western and eastern Mediterranean What are the methodological problems that archaeologists face when using survey data for this period? Did climate change have an impact on the exploitation of resources, agriculture and land management practices in late antiquity? Finally, we will examine Andrew Watson’s controversial model for a ‘Green Revolution’ after the Arab conquests and its reception in light of the latest archaeological research on technological change, rural settlement patterns and the introduction of new species.
    1. Essential 4 items
      Compare:
      1. Rethinking the later Roman landscape - Kim Bowes, Adam Gutteridge 2005

        Article Essential

    2. Recommended 12 items
      1. Landscapes of change: rural evolution in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages - Neil Christie c2004

        Book Recommended Especially Introduction

      2. ‘Rural settlement and Patterns of Change’ - N. Christie

        Chapter Recommended

      3. Peasant and empire in Christian North Africa - Leslie Dossey c2010

        Book Recommended

      4. Villa to village: the transformation of the Roman countryside in Italy, c.400-1000 - Riccardo Francovich, Richard Hodges 2003

        Book Recommended

      5. The Climate and Environment of Byzantine Anatolia: Integrating Science, History, and Archaeology - John Haldon, Neil Roberts, Adam Izdebski, Dominik Fleitmann 08/2014

        Article Recommended

      6. Vandal, Byzantine, and Arab rural landscapes in North Africa - A. Leone, D.J. Mattingly

        Chapter Recommended

    3. Supplementary Reading 15 items
      1. Recent research on the late antique countryside - William Bowden, Luke Lavan, Carlos Machado 2004

        Book 

      2. Irrigation Agrosystems in Eastern Spain: Roman or Islamic Origins? - Karl W. Butzer, Juan F. Mateu, Elisabeth K. Butzer, Pavel Kraus 12/1985

        Article 

      3. ‘The Countryside: the Roman Agricultural and Hydraulic Legacy of the Islamic Mediterranean’ - D. Ruggles

        Chapter 

      4. “Classical water technology in the early Islamic world” - A. I. Wilson

        Chapter 

    4. Further reading: Collapse 3 items
      1. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed - Jared M. Diamond 2011

        Book 

      2. Questioning collapse: human resilience, ecological vulnerability, and the aftermath of empire - Patricia Ann McAnany, Norman Yoffee 2010

        Book 

  9. SESSION 9: Shifting Networks: Mobility, Trade And Exchange 2 items
    Pirenne’s Mahomet et Charlemagne (1937) continues to frame the debate on the late antique and early medieval economy in the Mediterranean. As we saw in Session 1, he argued for a flourishing economy in the sixth century followed by a significant decline in the seventh century with the Arab conquests when the maritime routes were closed to trade. Archaeological evidence does point to a sharp drop in Mediterranean traffic and especially in large-scale seaborne commerce. Did trade in bulk goods, notably grain, wine and olive oil, as well as a host of ancillary products like papyrus continue into the seventh century by other means? How accurate a picture of trade links and mobility does the study of pottery and its distribution offer us in late antiquity? What are the methodological concerns?
    1. Essential (in this order) 2 items
      Revisit your notes on Pirenne from Week 1.
      1. Mohammed, Charlemagne & the origins of Europe: archaeology and the Pirenne thesis - Richard Hodges, David Whitehouse 1983

        Book Essential Ch 1 and Ch 5

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