Created:
03/07/2013 16:50:05
Last updated:
29/05/2014 12:22:35
This list relates to the academic year Academic Year 2013/14 which ended on 01/07/2014
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  1. If you notice any broken links or missing digitised readings in this list, please contact the course co-ordinator, Rachael Sparks (r.sparks@ucl.ac.uk)

  2. How to use this list 1 item
    Everyone should look at the priority readings before Friday's class. Some are specifically needed for the general discussion section of the seminar. Additional reading should be added at your discretion, to make up the 8 hours of reading per week expected for this course.
    1. In addition, anyone doing a seminar presentation should begin with the essential readings for their topic, and supplement these with items from the 'priority' or 'other reading' sections.

       

      If an item of reading you need is not available, choose something else from the list, or contact the course co-ordinator for alternative suggestions.

       

      Any item that can be downloaded will be marked 'Digitised reading available'.

       

      IoA = Institute of Archaeology library, MAIN = main UCL Library.

  3. Lecture 1 - Introduction: the rationale and structure of the course 0 items
    This session explains the aims and format of the course, what resources are available, and what will be expected of students in terms of oral presentations and written work. Copies of the course handbook will be disseminated and students will be assigned to their seminar groups. The following seminar session will be used to develop personal theories on what constitutes a 'text'.
  4. Lecture 2 - The nature of the surviving evidence 18 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Papyrus - B. Leach, J. Tait

        Chapter Essential Read this to prepare for the general discussion part of today's seminar. Consider particularly the conditions under which papyrus will, and will not survive in the archaeological record. Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FRE.L /725149.

      2. The Evidence for Early Writing: ~Utilitarian or Ceremonial? - Postgate, N., Wang, T., Wilkinson, T. 1995

        Article Essential This paper uses evidence from Egypt, Mesopotamia and China to examine the impact of differential preservation of various materials on our understanding of how early writing was used. Read this to prepare for the general discussion part of today's seminar. Hard copy at IoA: Periodicals A.

      3. The Antiquities Market, Sensationalized Textual Data, and Modern Forgeries: Introduction to the Problem and Synopsis of the 2004 Israeli Indictment. - C.A. Rollston, A.G. Vaughn 2006

        Webpage Essential An article discussing the ethical dimensions of textual studies, and some of the problems that can arise when academics and museums embrace unprovenanced texts.

      4. Miles of Clay: Information Management in the Ancient Near Eastern Hittite Empire - T. van den Hout 2003

        Webpage Essential This paper addresses the question of why records were kept, and how we might interpret the way they were stored. It also presents the case study of the tablets found at Bogazkoy, capital of the Hittites - and the interpretative problems that ensue when you don't record archaeological contexts for this type of material. Available online.

    2. Seminar question 2.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation "How were cuneiform texts stored in the Near East? What does this tell us about the way they were used?"
      1. Ebla: an empire rediscovered - Matthiae, Paolo 1980

        Book Essential The site of Ebla in Syria provides a good case study for the value of properly recording the archaeological findspots of groups of cuneiform tablets. Numerous tablets were discovered in the destruction of palace G at this site, some in situ, some in the process of being rescued from the fire. Copies in other libraries: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY 7th Floor (63) LKF EBL Mat; SOAS QHG939.4 /428526.

      2. Miles of Clay: Information Management in the Ancient Near Eastern Hittite Empire - T. van den Hout 2003

        Webpage Essential This paper addresses the question of why records were kept, and how we might interpret the way they were stored. It also presents the case study of the tablets found at Bogazkoy, capital of the Hittites - and the interpretative problems that ensue when you don't record archaeological contexts for this type of material. It makes a good case study to compare with the evidence from Ebla. Available online.

    3. General discussion questions

      There are two issues for general discussion this week. Look at the priority readings above to prepare.

      1. Does the exact provenance or findspot of texts really matter? Consider the article by ROLLSTON and VAUGHN 2006.

    4. 2. What effect does the material used for recording texts have on their survival? Is this distorting the ancient record? Read LEACH & TAIT 2000, and POSTGATE et al. 1995.

    5. Other reading 10 items
      1. Anyang Writing and the Origin of the Chinese Writing System - R.W. Bagley

        Chapter Recommended We don't discuss early Chinese writing in class, but it makes an interesting case study, and some of you may want to explore this further in your course essay. This article would be a good starting point for that. Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Houston]; SOAS A411.09 /951246.

      2. Archives and Libraries in the Ancient Near East - Tait, J., Black, J.A.

        Chapter Recommended This is an introduction to the way people stored and used texts in antiquity; don't get too hung up on the definition of what distinguishes an archive from a library though. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824

      3. The Decipherment of Ancient Near Eastern Scripts - P. T. Daniels

        Chapter Recommended This will give you a good background to the decipherment history of some Near Eastern scripts and the problems encountered.. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

      4. A Re-examination of the Inscribed Pomegranate from the Israel Museum - Goren, Y., Ahituv, S., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M. 2005

        Article Recommended This and the following articles by Avigad and Lemaire discuss a controversial object that was purchased by the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and whose authenticity came to be questioned. The discussion raises the problems that using unprovenanced material can raise for scholarly understanding of the past. Also available at IoA: PERS I and SOAS Per 5 74853.

      5. The Inscribed Pomegranate from the "House of the Lord" - Avigad, N. 1990-09

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: PERS B and SOAS Per 107L 355717.

      6. A Re-examination of the Inscribed Pomegranate: A Rejoinder - Lemaire, A. 2006

        Article Optional A response to Goren et al. 2005. Also available at IoA: PERS I and SOAS Per 5 74853.

      7. Between Theory, Texts and Archaeology: Working with the Shadows - S. Sherratt

        Chapter Recommended Does what it says on the tin; a pragmatic approach to problems in archaeological theory and the use of textual and archaeological evidence, framed within the parameters of a conference on Mediterranean contact. While the whole is worth reading, if you are short of time focus on the section called 'Texts and Archaeology', pp 6-10.

      8. Archives of Alalah IV in Archaeological Context - Von Dassow, E. 2005

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA PERS B.

      9. Reconstructing the World of Ancient Mesopotamia: Divided Beginnings and Holistic History - Zettler, R.L. 2003

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA PERS J.

  5. Lecture 3 - The development and operation of early writing systems 19 items
    1. There are no seminar presentations this week - instead we will be doing an object handling session.

    2. Priority Reading 2 items
      1. The Origins of Writing as A Problem of Historical Epistemology - Damerow, P. 2006

        Article Essential Where and how does writing start? This article might give you some ideas.

      2. Reading the past: ancient writing from cuneiform to the alphabet - Hooker, J. T. c1990

        Book Essential This is a really useful book if you want to find out how different writing systems work. For the seminar, read at least TWO chapters of your choice from: Cuneiform, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Linear B or The Early Alphabet. Note that the chapters in this book have also been published as individual monographs (Chadwick 1987, Davies 1987, Healey 1990, Walker 1987 - the library also has copies of these). Also available at SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker]; SOAS A411.09 /607197.

    3. Other Reading 16 items
      1. Mesopotamian writing systems 6 items
        1. Tokenism - Review by: Michalowski, Piotr 1993-12

          Article Recommended Not everybody agrees with Schmandt-Besserat's take on what tokens signify. Read this to find out why. Also available at IoA Periodicals A and SOAS Per 28/ 68177

        2. The archaic texts from Uruk - Hans J. Nissen 1986

          Article Recommended This includes a discussion of the archaeological context of the archaic text corpus from Uruk level IV. Also available at: IoA periodicals W.

        3. The Scribes and Scholars of Ancient Mesopotamia - Pearce, L. E.

          Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

        4. Use of Writing among the Assyrians - O. Pedersen

          Chapter Optional Also available at IoA: DBB 100 Qto WAE and SOAS L QDB935 /747128.

        5. The Written Record - J.N. Postgate 1992

          Chapter Recommended Postgate provides a good overview of this material. Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY SHL South Block 7th Floor (63) LJA Pos; SOAS QD935 /635635.

        6. Record Keeping Before Writing - Schmandt-Besserat, D.

          Chapter Optional The theory about Near Eastern token use is explained here by its most vocal supporter; it is suggested that this 'pre-writing' system for managing information led to the development of Late Uruk proto-writing. Also available: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

      2. Egyptian writing systems 5 items
        1. The Earliest Egyptian Writing: Development, Context, Purpose - Baines, J.

          Chapter Recommended Baines has a lot of interesting things to say about early Egyptian writing; highly recommended. Also available: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Houston]; SOAS A411.09 /951246.

        2. Origins of Egyptian Writing - Bard, K.A.

          Chapter Optional This article was written some time ago, and before the Abydos U-j data had come to light. Bear that in mind when she talks about the earliest evidence for Egyptian writing. Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63), LM7 Fol.

        3. Tomb U-j, a Royal Burial of Dynasty O at Abydos - G. Dreyer 2011

          Article Recommended This tomb is at the centre of the debate about the earliest Egyptian writing. This paper will give you the excavator's own views on what was found and what it all means. Also available at IoA: EGYPTOLOGY B 11 TEE.

        4. The Emergence of Writing in Egypt - J. D. Ray 1986

          Article Optional A good introduction to early uses of Egyptian writing, but keep in mind that additional evidence has become available since this was written (see DREYER above). Also available at IoA: Periodicals W.

        5. Tomb U-j at Abydos and the origins of writing - D. Wengrow

          Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63), LMA Wen; SOAS FRE /975237.

      3. The early alphabet 4 items
        1. Two Early Alphabetic Inscriptions from the Wadi el-Ḥôl: New Evidence for the Origin of the Alphabet from the Western Desert of Egypt - J.C. Darnell et al 2005

          Article Optional Publication of two short, but highly significant early inscriptions in a West Semitic alphabetic script. But what are they doing in Egypt? Read this to find out!

        2. The Infancy of the Alphabet - A. R. Millard 1986

          Article Recommended We all know about how the Phoenicians gave the alphabet to the Western world; but where did they get it? This explains how the alphabet came to be created. Note that Millard doesn't include the Wadi el-Hol inscriptions in his discussion, as they had not yet been found when this paper was written. Also available at IoA PERS W.

        3. The Probable Inventors of the First Alphabet: Semites Functioning as rather High Status Personnel in a Component of the Egyptian Apparatus - C. Rollston 2010

          Webpage Recommended A good summary of evidence for the development of the Proto-Canaanite (aka Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet, and of the debate surrounding the circumstances of its invention. Also published as an ASOR Blog. Goldwasser replied to this article in 2012 in the Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 4.2, 9-22. See also Goldwasser 2006 (in general reading at end of list).

        4. Wadi el-Hol - J.C. Darnell 2013

          Webpage Recommended

      4. Comparative works 1 item
        1. Writing Gets a Rewrite - A. Lawler 2001

          Article Optional A short 'journalistic' article comparing the writing systems of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. This is a good starting point, but you should supplement it with more detailed sources.

  6. Lecture 4 - Text and object: uses of alphabetic writing in the Greek World 18 items
    1. Priority Reading 3 items
      1. Greek Inscriptions - B.F. Cook 1987

        Book Essential This is a great survey of the subject, covering where the alphabet came from, and the different types of objects on which it was used. Don't forget to study the pictures! Also available at SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LDP Coo. If you can't find the monograph, it was also published as a chapter in: HOOKER's 1990 Reading the Past (see week 3 reading for full classmark details).

      2. All Runes to Me - A.W. Johnston

        Chapter Essential Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3761).

      3. The Uses of Writing on Early Greek Painted Pottery - A. Snodgrass

        Chapter Essential A nicely archaeological take on a body of texts, in this case, Attic inscribed vessels. Snodgrass covers a range of aspects, including the social contexts in which this type of writing was used. Digitised reading. Also available at SENATE HOUSE ART South Block 4th Floor Mx South Gallery V3AG Wor.

    2. Seminar question 4.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation "Why do you think the Greeks adopted alphabetic writing? Consider the types of texts and objects on which this writing first appears, and their contexts of use".
      1. Why Was the Greek Alphabet Invented? The Epigraphical Evidence - Barry B. Powell 1989

        Article Essential Writing seems incredibly useful to us now, but try and imagine what it was like in a society that didn't have it. Greece had managed perfectly well without writing for several centuries - so why did they suddenly decide to take up this new fangled invention of the alphabet?

      2. Visible writing: questions of script and identity in Early Iron Age Greece and Cyprus - Susan Sherratt 2003

        Article Essential Susan Sherratt approaches the question of 'Why Write?' from a more ideological point of view. Also available at IoA: Periodicals O.

    3. Seminar question 4.2 4 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation "To what extent was Greek writing merely ‘decoration using letters’ in the period c. 800-400 BC?"
      1. All Runes to Me - A.W. Johnston

        Chapter Essential

      2. Inscriptions on Greek Vases - F. Lissarrague

        Chapter Essential Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall fol. CC25.2 [Christin].

      3. You can supplement these sources with visual material from COOK 1987 (see priority reading above), EASTERLING & HANDLEY 2001, and JEFFREY 1989 (see under 'other reading'). This presentation will need to have a strong visual element to it: the British Museum's online database is a useful source of images (http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/advanced_search.aspx)

    4. 4.3 General Discussion question

      Consider the ways in which Greek writing was presented visually. What practical techniques were used to assist the reader?

      • To help you answer this, look closely at illustrations of Greek inscribed objects (COOK 1987 and EASTERLING & HANDLEY 2001 are good sources for these) and think how visual presentation of a text influences its clarity, and a reader's expectations.

    5. Other Reading 8 items
      1. The Origins of the Inscribed Greek Stela - J. Davies

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC411.09 /937203.

      2. The Greek Alphabets - C. Dobias-Lalou

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall fol. CC25.2 [Christin].

      3. Greek Scripts; an Illustrated Introduction - P. Easterling, C. Handley 2001

        Book Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.2 [Easterling].

      4. Field Sports: Engaging Greek Archaeology and History - L. Foxhall

        Chapter Optional Also available at: MAIN ANCIENT HISTORY A 8 SAU and SENATE HOUSE ARCHAEOLOGY South Block 7th Floor (63) LA3 Arc .

      5. Argos' Victory over Corinth - A.H. Jackson 2000

        Article Optional Also available: MAIN PAPYROLOGY Pers Z.

      6. The local scripts of archaic Greece : a study of the origin of the Greek alphabet and its development from the eighth to the fifth centuries B.C. - L.H. Jeffery 1989

        Book Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE CLASSICS South Block 6th Floor (3) XEH Jed.

      7. The Study of Greek Inscriptions - A.G. Woodhead 1992

        Book Optional Multiple editions available.

  7. Lecture 5 - Taking Writing to the West. The Social Contexts and Script Diversity of Pre-Roman Italy 19 items
    1. Priority Reading 2 items
      1. The Social Context of Literacy in Archaic Greece and Etruria - S. Stoddard, J. Whitley 1988

        Article Essential Also available at: IoA Periodicals A.

    2. Seminar question 5.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation: "Is there a relationship between urbanization, state formation and literacy in Iron Age Italy?"
    3. Seminar question 5.2 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation on: "What role did women have in Iron Age Italy vis-à-vis literacy".
      1. The Woman's Role - A. Rallo

        Chapter Essential

    4. General Discussion Question

      "Was literacy socially exclusive? How easily can we tell from the archaeological evidence of Archaic Central Italy?"

    5. Other Reading 12 items
      1. Etruscan - L. Bonfante

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker]; SOAS A411.09 /607197. This readin is also available in monograph form: Bonfante, L. 1990. Etruscan, London: British Museum Publications: see IoA: GE 102 BON, MAIN: COMP. PHIL. B 32 BON.

      2. The Etruscan Language - G. Bonfante, L. Bonfante 2002

        Book Optional This is really useful as a source of background information on Etruscan archaeology, details of Etruscan language, and for a series of translations of a range of Etruscan texts with good supporting images. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WUT Bon.

      3. The Script of Ancient Italy - D. Briquel

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall fol. CC25.2 [Christin].

      4. Greek Letters at Osteria dell'Osa - D. Ridgway 1996

        Article Recommended Reading is also available in the Institute of Archaeology Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3767)

      5. Undeciphered Scripts - A. Robinson

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading

      6. Inscriptions in Latium - C.J. Smith

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LUB Smi

      7. The Origins and Development of the Latin Alphabet - R. Wallace

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1; SOAS A411.09 /657348

      8. Muluvanice Inscriptions at Poggio Civitate (Murlo) - Rex E. Wallace Jul 2008

        Article Optional

      9. Veneti & Etruscans: Issues of Language, Literacy and Learning - Ruth Whitehouse, John Wilkins

        Chapter Optional An interesting paper that examines the materiality of writing in Northeastern Italy, the area of the ancient Veneti. It discusses the uses of Venetic writing and explores theories about the relationship between the Etruscan and Venetic scripts.

      10. The Economic Agency of the Etruscan Temple - H. Becker

        Chapter Recommended A useful article about the significance of votive offerings, including those with inscribed dedications. Although this focuses on the Etruscan temple, you may also find it helpful in understanding votive practices on a broader level.

  8. Lecture 6 - Writing and society in ancient Egypt 16 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Four Notes on Literacy - J.R. Baines, C.J. Eyre

        Chapter Essential Digitised reading

      2. The Report of Wenamun - M. Lichtheim

        Chapter Essential Read this or the Simpson translation; the commentary from the earlier Breasted translation is also useful (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/wenamen.htm).

      3. The Report of Wenamun - W. K. Simpson

        Chapter Essential Read this or the Lichtheim translation; the commentary from the earlier Breasted translation is also useful (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/wenamen.htm).

      4. Does She or Doesn’t She? Female Literacy in Ancient Egypt - S.B. Shubert

        Chapter Recommended A thorough review of the evidence for, and against, female literacy in Egypt. Don't miss this one! Digitised reading

    2. Seminar question 6.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation: "Discuss the debate on literacy levels in ancient Egypt. Does it matter what exact percentage of Egyptians could read and write?"
      1. Four Notes on Literacy - J.R. Baines, C.J. Eyre

        Chapter Essential Digitised reading

      2. Literacy and Letters at Deir el-Medina - J. J. Janssen

        Chapter Essential Also available at: SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.1 /725247.

    3. Seminar question 6.2 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation on: "What do we know about how Egyptian scribes were trained? How does this compare with what we know of scribal training elsewhere in the Near East?"
      1. Texts, Tablets and Teaching. Scribal Education in Nippur and Ur - S. Tinney

        Article Essential Also available at: IoA periodicals E

      2. The Scribes of Ancient Egypt - E. Wente

        Chapter Essential Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

    4. General Discussion Question

      "What can the Tale of Wenamun tell us abot language and literacy in the Egyptian world? Consider particularly how writing and documentation of past events are mentioned within the text".

    5. Other Reading 7 items
      1. Literacy and Ancient Egyptian Society - J. R. Baines 1983

        Article Recommended

      2. On Wenamun as a literary text - J. Baines

        Chapter Optional Book is available at: ISSUE DESK IoA ASS

      3. Scribes and Scribal Activity at Deir el-Medina - B. J. J. Haring

        Chapter Optional

      4. The Saite 'Demoticisation' of Southern Egypt - C. J. Martin

        Chapter Optional

      5. Quelques Textes Scolaires Paléo-babyloniens Rédigés par des Femmes - Brigitte Lion, Eleanor Robson 2005

        Article Recommended Yes, I know its in French, but this article is very useful on the issue of female scribes in Mesopotamia, for comparison with the data on female literacy in Egypt (see Shubert in this week's reading) and Italy (see Hodos in the reading for last week). So if you can read French, please check it out!

  9. Lecture 7 - The Hebrew Bible and the archaeology of Iron Age Israel 23 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Mesha and the naming of names - B. Routledge

        Chapter Essential This includes a translation of the text, and some useful background information that will help you contextualise it. For another translation, see SCHMIDT 2006 below. Digitised reading.

      2. The Moabite Stone - B. B. Schmidt

        Chapter Essential Read the translation of the text and commentary. For another translation, see ROUTLEDGE 2004 above. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Anc; SOAS QC930 /964774 and /995338.

      3. BibleGateway.com: A searchable online Bible in over 100 versions and 50 languages.

        Website Essential Read 2 Kings 3: 4-27. Try reading the passage using different translations, to get an idea of the variation between versions. Available online.

    2. General Discussion Question

      This week there will be an object handling session in place of the usual student presentations. This will include a consideration of a cast of the Mesha stela; please consider the following question in advance of the session: 'Consider the Mesha Stele and its significance to our understanding of contemporary history. How does its version of events compare with the biblical account?'. As preparation for this, read a translation of the text of the Mesha Stele (also known as the Moabite Stone) and the passage from 2 Kings 3: 47-27 listed above.

       

    3. Other Reading 18 items
      1. On Site Identifications Old and New: The Example of Tell el-Hesi - Jeffrey A. Blakely, Fred L. Horton Jr 2001-03

        Article Optional Also available: IoA Periodicals N.

      2. John Garstang's Excavations at Jericho: A Cautionary Tale - F. Cobbing 2009

        Article Optional Not held at UCL. You can access an electronic version of this via SENATE HOUSE library (you'll first need to register for a University of London library card at their library desk on the 4th floor).

      3. The Four Room House: Embodying Iron Age Israelite Society - A. Faust, S. Bunimovitz 2003

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: Periodicals N.

      4. Part I: Introduction and History of Research - I. Finkelstein

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS FW /558608.

      5. Part IV: The Process of Israelite Settlement - I. Finkelstein

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS FW /558608.

      6. The Bible unearthed: archaeology's new vision of ancient Israel and the origin of its sacred texts - Finkelstein, Israel, Silberman, Neil Asher c2001

        Book  Please read chapters 3 to 5.

      7. The Inscribed Weights of the Kingdom of Judah - Raz Kletter 1991

        Article Recommended Also available at IoA: Periodicals T

      8. Royal Judahite Jar Handles: Reconsidering the Chronology of the Stamp Impressions - Oded Lipschits, Omer Sergi, Ido Koch 2010

        Article Recommended Also available at IoA: Periodicals T.

      9. Myth and Politics in Ancient Near Eastern Historiography - M. Liverani, M. von der Mieroop, Z. Bahroni 2004

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ2 Liv; SOAS QB907.2 /925804 and QB907.2 /933980.

      10. The days of the judges : Iron Age I (ca. 1200-1000 B.C.E.) - A. Mazar

        Chapter Optional This is one of the basic textbooks available for the archaeology of Israel, although it is becoming a bit dated now. It tends to present a more 'traditional' view of issues, including chronology. Also available at IoA: DBE 100 MAZ; ISSUE DESK IoA MAZ.

      11. A Century of Biblical Archaeology - P. R. S. Moorey 1991

        Book Optional Especially chapters 2-3. This is a study of the history of archaeology in the Southern Levant. Useful when considering the impact of biblical interests on the development of archaeological research in the region.

      12. Did the Authors of the Books of Kings Make Use of Royal Inscriptions? - S. B. Parker 2000

        Article Optional A consideration of the source material behind the composition of part of the Old Testament. Also available at IoA: Periodicals V.

      13. Hymn of Victory of Mer-Ne-Ptah - J. Pritchard

        Chapter Recommended A translation of the 'Israel Stele', which is a victory stele erected by the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah, famous for including the earliest mention of the people of Israel. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Pri; SOAS Main Library L QC890 /330793 and L Ref QC890 /330789. For a more recent translation, see Simpson, W.K. 2003. The Literature of Ancient Egypt, New Haven: Yale University Press, 356-360. (Make sure you use the third edition). EGYPTOLOGY V 20 SIM.

      14. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature - K. L. Sparks 2005

        Book Optional A substantial book, I suggest you dip into this to get a feel for the range of Near Eastern texts that have influenced the composition and style of the Old Testament. Also available at: SOAS Ref QC890 /951633 and QC890 /951578.

      15. In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History - J. Van Seters 1997

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) L43 Van; SOAS QB907.2 /482462.

  10. Lecture 8 - The relationship between texts and imagery in the Neo-Assyrian Empire 21 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Multilingual Inscriptions and their Audiences: Cilicia and Lycia - A. Payne

        Chapter Essential How does a multicultural society affect the use of writing? Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3755). Book also available at: SOAS QC411.09 /995244.

      2. The Importance of Place: Esarhaddon’s Stelae at Til Barsip and Sam’al - B. N. Porter

        Chapter Essential One of my favourite articles on the course, this demonstrates what happens when you critique text, imagery and context thoroughly. Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3756). Book is also available at: SOAS QD935.0072 /813728.

      3. Ideology and Propaganda in Assyrian Art - J. Reade

        Chapter Essential Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LI7 Pow; SOAS QB930 /416841.

      4. Art in Empire: the Royal Image and the Visual Dimensions of Assyrian Ideology - I. J. Winter

        Chapter Essential Winter's article helps you get inside the head of Assyrian royalty and understand the role of convention and standardisation within Assyrian visual art. Also available at: SOAS L QDB935.03 /748491.

    2. Seminar Question 8.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the presentation topic: "Discuss the way images can be used to enhance the impact of Neo-Assyrian wall reliefs"
      1. Ideology and Propaganda in Assyrian Art - J. Reade

        Chapter Essential

    3. Seminar Question 8.2 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the presentation on: "Should we read Neo-Assyrian narrative texts and images as history?"
      1. Assyrian Propaganda and the Falsification of History in the Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib - Antti Laato 1995

        Article Essential Also available at: MAIN HEBREW PERS.

      2. Representations, Reality, and Ideology - J. C. Ross

        Chapter Essential Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ4 Arc; SOAS FR /949353.

    4. General Discussion Question

      How can you determine who the original audience of a text was supposed to be? Please consider the articles by PORTER 2001 and PAYNE 2006, listed above under priority reading, to help you answer this question.

    5. Other Reading 12 items
      1. The Raging Torrent. Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel - M. Cogan 2008

        Book Optional A collection of various texts in translation, well worth dipping into to get a feel for the range of material available. Also available at: SOAS QED956.9401 /725603.

      2. Epigraphs and Assyrian Palace Reliefs: The Development of the Epigraphic Text - P. Gerardi 1988

        Article Recommended We discuss some of these points in class, but this article shows you in depth how epigraphs work and develop on narrative relief scenes. Also available at IoA: Periodicals J.

      3. The Representation and Identification of Cities on Assyrian Reliefs - R. Jacoby 1991

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: Periodicals I.

      4. Now You See It, Now You Don’t! The Monumental Use and Non-Use of Writing in the Ancient Near East - K. A. Kitchen

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC411.09 /937203

      5. Assyrian Propaganda and the Falsification of History in the Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib - Antti Laato 1995

        Article Recommended Also available at: MAIN HEBREW PERS.

      6. The Ideology of the Assyrian Empire - M. Liverani

        Chapter Optional Liverani's work has been very influential in Near Eastern archaeology in general, often giving a more theoretical perspective on the issues. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LI7 Pow; SOAS QB930 /416841.

      7. Early Mesopotamian Communicative Systems: Art, Literature, and Writing - P. Michalowski

        Chapter Optional Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3757). Book is also available at: SOAS FR/632117.

      8. Assurnasirpal I and the White Obelisk - J. E. Reade 1975

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: Periodicals I. The White Obelisk is discussed briefly in the lecture this week; you can actually go and see the original in Room 6 at the British Museum. See the online catalogue entry for it at: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/t/the_white_obelisk.aspx.

      9. Representations, Reality, and Ideology - J. C. Ross

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ4 Arc; SOAS FR /949353.

      10. The Writing on the Wall : Studies in the Architectural Context of Late Assyrian Palace Inscriptions - J. M. Russell 1999

        Book Optional Russell is concerned with reconstructing the original layout of the palace reliefs, and their consequent interpretation. All of which would have been less of a problem if they had been excavated and recorded properly in the first place! Also available at: SOAS QEJ935.03 /805087.

      11. Propaganda, Literature, Historiography: Cracking the Code of the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, - H. Tadmor

        Article Optional Also available at: SOAS L QDB935.03 /748491.

      12. Royal Rhetoric and the Development of Historical Narrative in Neo-Assyrian Reliefs - I. J. Winter

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS MAIN FR /739730 (REFERENCE).

  11. Lecture 9 - Text and architecture in Ancient Egypt 24 items
    Richard Bussmann will be appearing as guest lecturer this week.
    1. Priority Reading 3 items
      1. Temple as Cosmos - J. Assmann

        Chapter Essential Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3758). Book is also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LMF Ass.

      2. British Museum - Welcome to the British Museum

        Webpage Essential Consider how the Rosetta stone is presented by the British Museum, in preparation for the general discussion in your seminar. You can also do a web search to see how the stone is portrayed and discussed on the internet in general.

      3. Proportionality in Mind and Space in Ancient Egypt - Barry Kemp, Pamela Rose 1991

        Article  Also available at IoA: Periodicals C.

    2. Seminar question 9.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation on: "How do Egyptian hieroglyphs and formal art work together visually and spatially?"
      1. Hieroglyphs - M. Collier, W. Manley

        Chapter Essential This book is designed to help people learn hieroglyphs, but is also gives useful insights as to the way in which signs are visually arranged within monumental and other texts. Well worth a read, even if not doing the seminar presentation this week. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WVF Col.

      2. Principles of Egyptian Art - G. Robins

        Chapter Essential Knowing the conventions behind Egyptian art is essential to understanding how particular images are presented, and how they should be read. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ART South Block 4th Floor Mx South Gallery V3AE Rob; SOAS FRE.L /752932 and FRE.L /752933.

    3. General Discussion 2 items
      The Rosetta Stone is an iconic text, now on display in the British Museum. Consider what the original function of this text was, and how its meaning and relevance has changed over time.
      1. The Rosetta Stone - R. Parkinson 2005

        Book Recommended A fabulous little monograph on this most iconic of texts.

      2. British Museum - Welcome to the British Museum

        Webpage Essential The Rosetta Stone is on display in the British Museum in rooms 4 and 1 (the original and a replica). You might want to look at the object in person, and also consider how it is presented by the British Museum there, and on their website: http://www.britishmuseum.org/ ; you can also do a web search to see how the stone is portrayed and discussed on the internet in general.

    4. Course Essays

      We will use the last part of the session to discuss your course essays; please prepare for this by reviewing the available topics and considering any questions you might wish to raise about this material in class.

    5. Other Reading 13 items
      1. Designing the Cosmos: Temples and Temple Decoration - B. M. Bryan

        Chapter Recommended This book is useful in helping you understand the significance of temple design and the composition of image and text within it.

      2. Graffiti (Figural) - E. Cruze-Uribe 2008

        Webpage Recommended This article provides some useful background to the use of figural and textual 'graffiti' in ancient Egypt. Several examples of this type of text are discussed in the lecture in week 9, with relation to the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the sites of Elephantine and Satet.

      3. Egyptian Hieroglyphs - W. V. Davies 1987

        Book Optional This is a good introduction to the subject of Egyptian hieroglyphs, their significance, and how they work. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WVF Dav; SOAS FRE/752791. This reading is also available in J.T. Hooker (ed.), 1990. Reading the Past. Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet New York: Barnes and Noble at: ISSUE DESK IOA HOO 2; GC HOO; SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker]; SOAS A411.09 /607197.

      4. Karnak: the Temple of Amun-Ra-Who-Hears-Prayers - L. Gallet 2013

        Webpage Recommended The Counter Temple of Amun-Ra at Karnak is mentioned in the course of the week 9 lecture; this article provides further background detail about this building and its function.

      5. Pharaonic Building Inscriptions and Temple Decoration - S. Grallert

        Chapter Recommended Also available at IoA: EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS R 5 DOR.

      6. The Graffiti on the Khonsu Temple Roof at Karnak: A Manifestation of Personal Piety - H. Jacquet-Gordon 2003

        Book Recommended This forms one of the case studies in the week 9 lecture. I'd particularly like you to read the Introduction, pp 1-8; however its also helpful to browse through some of the catalogue entries and images to get a sense of the texts themselves.

      7. The dynamics of culture - B. J. Kemp

        Chapter Optional Also available at: IoA: ISSUE DESK IOA KEM; EGYPTOLOGY B5 KEM; SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LME Kem; SOAS FRE/716757 and FRE /588667.

      8. Making Egyptian Temple Decoration Fit the Available Space - D. W. Larkin

        Chapter Recommended

      9. The Relationship Between Space and Scenery of an Egyptian Temple: Scenes of the Opet Festival and the Festival of Hathor at Karnak and Deir el-Bahari under Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III - A. Mironova 2010

        Article Recommended Not held at UCL. Available online at MOSAIKjournal and click on 'Ausgaben' to access article.

      10. An Architect’s Sketch from the Theban Necropolis - D. Polz 1997

        Article Optional IoA: Periodicals M.

      11. The Plan of a Royal Tomb on O. Cairo 25184 - C. Rossi 2001

        Article Optional IoA: Periodicals G.

      12. Architecture - K. Spence

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading.

      13. Procession - Martin Stadler 2008

        Webpage Recommended This article provides further information about Egyptian ritual processions, which are discussed in the week 9 lecture in relation to activities in the Temple Complex of Karnak.

    6. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology includes temple reliefs with hieroglyphic inscriptions oriented to the figures of king and god in the Main Gallery beside the back stairs. These demonstrate the inter-relation of script and image in formal temple art. The same rules for orienting hieroglyphs to the figures of deity and worshipper may be seen on the smaller votive and offering-chapel blocks (stelae) in Inscription Cases 1-10 in the same gallery. |

    7. Related monuments 2 items
      1. Koptos reconstruction of wall

        Webpage Optional See the object in the Petrie Museum, or on the Digital Egypt website.

      2. Koptos: UC 14786

        Webpage Optional See the object in the Petrie Museum, or on the Digital Egypt website. You can also look up the object in the Petrie Museum online database (go to http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/ and search for 'UC14786').

  12. Lecture 10 - Using texts as a chronological tool 13 items
    1. Priority Reading 3 items
      1. Dating and Attributing Coins - A. Burnett

        Chapter Essential Digitised reading.

      2. Romano-British Coin Hoards: Their Numismatic, Archaeological and Historical Significance - A. S. Robertson

        Chapter Essential Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LBD Coi.

      3. Chronology and Periodization - A. J. Spalinger

        Chapter Essential This chapter discusses some of the fixed points that are used to anchor ancient Egyptian chronologies Digitised reading.

    2. General Discussion Question

      This session will discuss the outcome of the seminar tips and tricks wiki and develop ideas about presentation skills and techniques. During the second half of the session the class with participate in an exercise involving the construction, analysis and interpretation of a modern coin hoard.

    3. Other Reading 9 items
      1. Numismatics (Minting and Monetary Systems/Coinage) in the Levant - K. Butcher

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FR /915730.

      2. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling - M. Dee, D. Wengrow, A. Shortland, A. Stevenson 2013

        Article Optional A study of existing and new radiocarbon dates, leading to a revision of existing chronologies for early Egyptian history.

      3. Dating Coins, Dating with Coins - K Lockyear 2012

        Article Recommended Also aailable at IoA: Periodicals O.

      4. The original version of the Royal Canon of Turin - J. Malek 1982

        Article Optional A detailed study of the Turin Canon, one of the most famous Egyptian King Lists, and its relationship to its source material. This is a good example of how to study fragmentary texts and how transmission errors occur in copied texts. We discussed some of these problems in week 2 of the course. IoA: Periodicals J. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE STACK SERVICE PR C5o.1 Egypt.

      5. Hoards - R. Reece

        Chapter Optional

      6. Coins and Stratigraphy - S. Rotroff

        Chapter Optional

      7. High Precision Dating and Archaeological Chronologies : Revisiting an Old Problem - S. Sherratt

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FW /963530.

      8. The Discovery of Time - S. Toulmin, J. Goodfield 1982

        Book Optional 1965 edition available at: SCIENCE HISTORY OF SCIENCE W 15 TOU and SENATE HOUSE PHILOSOPHY North Block 2nd Floor (66) AHG Tou.

      9. Radiocarbon Dating in Near-Eastern Contexts: Confusion and Quality Control - J. van der Plicht, H. Bruins 2001

        Article Optional Sometimes people get the impression that techniques like C14 dating can solve all our chronological problems. This article shows how things aren't as simple as all that. Also available at IoA: Periodicals R.

  13. General course reading 119 items
    This section contains optional readings; browse through it to find useful material for your course essays. If anyone is considering researching writing systems not covered directly in the course, such as Chinese or Mayan, please contact the course-coordinator for additional reading suggestions.
    1. I. Introductory Readings 11 items
      1. The Keys of Egypt. The Race to Read the Hieroglyphs - L. Adkins, R. Adkins 2001

        Book Optional This book tells the story of the decipherment of hieroglyphs, in a very readable format.

      2. Chronology of the Ancient World - E. Bickerman 1980

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY 7th Floor (63) LFC Bic.

      3. To Write or Not to Write - C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky

        Chapter Recommended Proof that writing is not an inevitable development of a complex society. Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FR /900282.

      4. Text-Aided Archaeology - B. J. Little

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading available of the introductory chapter. The rest of the book presents a series of case study showing how texts and archaeology can work together (or in some cases, not).

      5. Only Fragments from the Past: The Role of Accident in our Knowledge of the Ancient Near East, - A. Millard 2005

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC411.09 /937203.

      6. Archaeology and Text: Decipherment, Translation, and Interpretation - T. Palaima

        Chapter Optional Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3759).

      7. Writing and Script: a Very Short Introduction - Robinson, A. 2009

        Book Recommended As the title suggests, this is a good introductory text. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A302.2244/732322; SENATE HOUSE palaeography 4th floor, CC25.1 [Robinson].

      8. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East - J. Sasson 2000

        Book Recommended Please see the section on 'Language, Writing and Literature'. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930/825674.

      9. Handbook for Classical Research - D. M. Schaps 2010

        Book Optional With chapters on numismatics, epigraphy, papyrology, palaeography and translation, among others.

      10. Written Documents as Excavated Artifacts and the Holistic Interpretation of the Mesopotamian Archaeological Record - R. L. Zettler

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available at SOAS: MAIN L QB930/734557.

    2. II. Cultural and Archaeological Background 6 items
      1. Archaeological Introduction

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WUT Bon.

      2. The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium - R. R. Holloway 1994

        Book Optional See especially Chapter 8: Osteria dell'Osa - if you remember from weeks 5 and 7 in the course, this is where the earliest alphabetic inscription in the Mediterranean has been found. Is it Greek, Etruscan or Latin? We don't know. But it definitely includes vowels, which is a first. Also available at Senate House: HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th floor (63) LSH Hol.

      3. Archaeology of the land of the Bible, 10,000-586 B.C.E - A. Mazar 1990

        Book Recommended Please read pp. 263-295. A textbook that will give you a good background for the archaeology of the Southern Levant over a range of periods. This should help you put a framework around some of the material discussed in class, such as the development of Proto-Canaanite script in the Middle and Late Bronze Age, and the archaeology of Israel and Judah in the Iron Age.

      4. Early Mesopotamia : Society and Economy at the Dawn of History - J. N. Postgate 1994

        Book Recommended Postgate will give you a sound framework for the archaeology of Mesopotamia. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJA Pos; SOAS QD935 /635635.

      5. Ancient Egypt: A Social History - B.G. Trigger, B.J. Kemp, D. O'Connor, A.B. Lloyd 1983

        Book Optional Interested in Egyptian writing? This book will help you contextualise it within its broader social and economic context. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LME/Anc; SOAS Level F Mobiles QR932.01 /900782 and /695912.

      6. The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in North East Africa, 10,000-2650 BC - D. Wengrow 2006

        Book Recommended This provides a good background for the earlier periods of Egyptian archaeology (Predynastic, Protodynastic, Old Kingdom), and help you contextualise the material from Abydos U-j and objects such as the Narmer Palette. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63), LMA Wen; SOAS FRE /975237.

    3. III. Texts as Writing Systems 35 items
      1. Handbook of Scripts and Alphabets - G. L. Campbell 1997

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE STACK SERVICE [DEPOS - MxS] Ref.only 411 [Campbell]; SOAS A411 /720913.

      2. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems - F. Coulmas 1999

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE INFORMATION CENTRE South Block 4th Floor rapid reference 411 [Coulmas]; SOAS Ref A411.03 /725970 (1996 edition).

      3. The Origins of Chinese Writing: the Neolithic Evidence - P. Demattè 2010

        Article Optional We didn't discuss Chinese writing in the lectures, but this would be a useful starting place if you are thinking of using this material as a case study in your course essay (particularly question 1). Also available at IoA: Periodicals C.

      4. The Alphabet: a Key to the History of Mankind. - D. Diringer 1968

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Diringer]; SOAS A411 /225360

      5. Greek Scripts: an illustrated introduction 2001

        Book Recommended This book has a series of chapters on different aspects of Greek writing, ranging in date from the Bronze Age into the Medieval periods; it includes many useful illustrations. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.2 [Easterling].

      6. Greek and Latin Papyrology - I. Gallo 1986

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC21 [Gallo] 001.

      7. A Study of Writing - I. J. Gelb 1963

        Book Recommended An influential volume. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Gelb]; SOAS A411 /317312.

      8. The Invention of Cuneiform: Writing in Sumer - J. J. Glassner 2003

        Book Optional Among other things, useful as a critique to Schmandt-Besserat's theories about token use and their link to early writing (see pages 63-83). Also available at: SOAS Main Library QEA411 /904984.

      9. The Writing Revolution: Cuneiform to the Internet - A.E. Gnanadesikan 2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Gnanadesikan].

      10. Canaanites Reading Hieroglyphs. Horus is Hathor? - The Invention of the Alphabet in Sinai - O. Goldwasser 2006

        Article Recommended This article is quite long, but has some very interesting points to make about how the Proto-Canaanite alphabet came about. Also available at IoA: Periodicals A.

      11. The Origins of the West Semitic Alphabet in Egyptian Scripts - G. J. Hamilton 2006

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QK411 /994180.

      12. Pictograms or pseudo script? : non-textual identity marks in practical use in ancient Egypt and elsewhere : proceedings of a conference in Leiden, 19-20 December 2006 2009

        Proceedings Optional Not all marks are writing. Find out why here.Also available at: SOAS Main library FRE/742766.

      13. The Origin of Writing - R. Harris 1986

        Book Recommended A good critique of theories to do with the origins of writing systems. Well worth a read if you are planning on doing the first essay question. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A411 /524770; SENATE HOUSE LINGUISTICS 5th Floor (3) WCC Har, and STACK service WCC Har.

      14. Writing in Anatolia: Imported and Indigenous Systems - D. Hawkins 1986

        Article Optional Anatolia (modern Turkey) is home to scripts such as Hittite Hieroglyphs and cuneiform. Find out how these are mapped out onto a range of languages. Also available at IoA: Periodicals W.

      15. Reading the Past: Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet 1990

        Book Suggested for student purchase This book has a series of chapters on different writing systems, including Linear B, Egyptian hieroglyphs, the early alphabet, Greek, and Etruscan. Also available at Senate House library: Palaeography North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker], and SOAS A411.09/607197. You'll find the chapters in the book also published as individual monographs under the names of their respective authors, in a British Museum series called 'Reading the Past'.

      16. The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process - S.D. Houston 2004

        Book Recommended Also available at SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North block ground floor small hall CC25.1 [Houston]; SOAS A411.09/951246.

      17. The shape of script: how and why writing systems change - Houston, Stephen D. c2012

        Book Recommended This contains a range of articles about how scripts develop over the course of their lives, with discussions of cuneiform (VELDHUIS), Egyptian hieroglyphs (BAINES), Roman script and punctuation (BODEL), as well as Chinese, Japanese, and Mayan writing systems.

      18. Attic Script: A Survey - H. R. Immerwahr 1990

        Book Optional

      19. Writing: the Story of Alphabets and Scripts - G. Jean 2000

        Book Optional Also available at SENATE HOUSE Palaeography North block ground floor small hall CC25.2 [Jean].

      20. Hieroglyphic Writing during the Fourth Millennium BC - J. Kahl 2001

        Article Optional Also available at IoA Periodicals A

      21. The Use of Written Records - Winfred Philipp Lehmann

        Chapter Optional Digitised readings. Also available at SENATE HOUSE LINGUISTICS South Block 6th floor 93) WAH Leh; SOAS A417.7/654041.

      22. The Chinese Writing System - O. Moore

        Chapter Optional One of the monographs in the British Museum's 'Reading the Past' Series (this did not appear as a chapter in Hooker's book of the same title, but was written subsequently). A good introduction to Chinese writing systems, and useful for anyone thinking of doing a case study on this for their course essay. Also available at SOAS CC495.111/927194

      23. Writing Systems and Identity - A. Payne

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS MAIN L QF939.2 /984614.

      24. Papyrus - R. Parkinson, S. Quirke

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC21 [Parkinson].

      25. Writing and the Origins of Greek Literature - B. Powell 2002

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE CLASSICS South Block 6th Floor (3) XFA Pow.

      26. Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization - B. B. Powell 2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY 4th Floor CC24.1 [Powell].

      27. The Relation between Format and Content in Neo-Assyrian texts - K. Radner 1995

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS MAIN QEJ892.1 /735160.

      28. How Writing Came About - D. Schmandt-Besserat 1996

        Book Optional Schmandt-Besserat is known for supporting the theory that token use led directly to the development of Mesopotamian writing systems. Her work has been critiqued by a number of scholars, including Michaeolowski 1993, Glassner 2003 and Shendge 1983. Also available at: SOAS FR/735004.

      29. The Origins of Writing 1989

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS A411.09 /657348; SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Senner].

      30. The Use of Seals and the Invention of Writing - Malati J. Shendge 1983

        Article Optional This rather long article provides a critique of Schmandt-Besserat’s interpretation of tokens and gives a good summary of the development of ideas about the use of tokens and bullae for accounting. Watch out, as the author talks about 'bulles', when the correct plural of the word is 'bullae'.

      31. Greek Papyri: an Introduction - E.G. Turner 1968

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC21 [Turner].

      32. Cuneiform - C. B. F. Walker 1987

        Book Recommended Also available at: SOAS QE411 /546888 and /961233. Note that you will also find this monograph published as a chapter in HOOKER, J.T. 1990. Reading the Past. Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet.

      33. Visible language: inventions of writing in the ancient Middle East and beyond - Woods, Christopher, Emberling, Geoff, Teeter, Emily, University of Chicago 2010

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS MAIN LQE411/737187.

      34. Cuneiform texts and the writing of history - Van de Mieroop, Marc 1999

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QE935 /783889 and /783888.

    4. IV. Texts as Social, Cultural and Political Tools 27 items
      1. Visual and written culture in ancient Egypt - Baines, John 2007

        Book Optional

      2. The disappearance of writing systems: perspectives on literacy and communication - Baines, John, Bennet, John, Houston, Stephen D. 2008

        Book  In week 3 of the course we discussed why writing systems first develop, a theme that is also explored in one of the course essays. However equally interesting is the question of why they stop being used - which forms the focus of this volume, which explores the decline of writing systems across the Mediterranean, Near East, Arabia and New World. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A411.09.

      3. Beyond the great story: history as text and discourse - Berkhofer, Robert F. 1995

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) L4B Ber.

      4. Reconciling Two Maps: Archaeological Evidence for the Kingdoms of David and Solomon - J.A. Blakeley 2002

        Article Optional Also available at IoA Periodicals B.

      5. Sumerian Extract Tablets and Scribal Education - P. Delnero 2010

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA Periodicals C.

      6. The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: an Alternative View - Israel Finkelstein 1996

        Article Optional Finkelstein is one of the most controversial figures in the archaeology of Iron Age Israel. You need to keep in mind when his various works have been written, as he has changed his mind on a number of issues over time. Also available at: IoA Periodicals L.

      7. Ancient history: evidence and models - Finley, M. I. 2008

        Book Optional Especially Chapter 2: 'The Ancient Historian and his Sources'. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LO2 Fin.

      8. On Categorization and Metaphorical Structuring: Some Remarks on Egyptian Art and Language - Paul J. Frandsen 1997

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA Periodicals C

      9. From Oral Practice to Written Record in Ramesside Deir El-Medina - B. L. L. Haring 2003

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: Periodicals J.

      10. Ancient literacy - Harris, William V. 1989

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25 [Harris].

      11. Idea into image: essays on ancient Egyptian thought - Hornung, Erik, Bredeck, Elizabeth c1992

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PHILOSOPHY North Block 2nd Floor (66) AAD Hor.

      12. Sign, symbol and script: an account of man's efforts to write - Jensen, Hans, Unwin, George 1970

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.2 [Jensen].

      13. Ancient literacies: the culture of reading in Greece and Rome - Johnson, William A., Parker, Holt N. 2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.7 [Johnson].

      14. Literacy and Social Complexity - M. T. Larsen

        Chapter Optional

      15. Script Obsolescence in Ancient Italy: From Pre-Roman to Roman Writing - K. Lomas

        Chapter Optional An examination of how and why a range of Italian scripts and languages became obsolete. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A411.09.

      16. Literacy and the state in the ancient Mediterranean - Lomas, Kathryn, Whitehouse, Ruth, Wilkins, John 2007

        Book Optional

      17. The Knowledge of Writing in Late Bronze Age Palestine - A. Millard

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS QB930 /806902.

      18. Archaic bookkeeping: early writing and techniques of the economic administration in the ancient Near East - Nissen, Hans Jörg, Damerow, Peter, Englund, Robert K., Larsen, Paul 1993

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LDJ Nis; SOAS QEA411 /693469.

      19. The Oxford handbook of cuneiform culture - Radner, Karen, Robson, Eleanor 2011

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS main library QC930 /739763.

      20. Legal and Archaeological Territories of the Second Millennium BC in Northern Mesopotamia - L. Ristvet 2008

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA Periodicals A

      21. Bisotun III. Darius's Inscriptions – Encyclopaedia Iranica - R. Schmitt 1989

        Webpage Optional Also known as the Behistun inscription, this important trilingual inscription is discussed several times during the course.

      22. Phrasikleia: an anthropology of reading in ancient Greece - Svenbro, Jesper, Lloyd, Janet 1993

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE CLASSICS South Block 6th Floor (3) XEH Sve.

      23. Egypt, Ancient, XVI, 11 'Maps and Plans' - J. Tait

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ART South Block 4th Floor Mx South Gallery V11 Dic.

      24. Literate culture and tenth-century Canaan: the Tel Zayit abecedary in context - Tappy, Ron E., McCarter, P. Kyle 2008

        Book Optional

    5. V. The Visual, Physical and Temporal Setting of Texts 17 items
      1. Building in Egypt: pharaonic stone masonry - Arnold, Dieter 1991

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main library FRE.L/713479.

      2. Temples of the last pharaohs - Arnold, Dieter 1999

        Book Optional

      3. The Disjunction of Text and Image in Egyptian Art - B. M. Bryan

        Chapter Recommended Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3760).

      4. Mesopotamian Historical Consciousness and the Production of Monumental Art in the Third Millennium B.C. - J. S. Cooper

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS FR/632117.

      5. Art and empire: treasures from Assyria in the British Museum - Curtis, John, Reade, Julian, Collon, Dominique 1995

        Book Recommended An excellent exhibition catalogue of Neo-Assyrian material in the British Museum, this book includes many of the reliefs shown in this course. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ART FOLIO (f) South Block 4th Floor Mx South V58ed BRI; SOAS Main Library FRM.L/702272.

      6. The canonical tradition in ancient Egyptian art - Davis, Whitney 1989

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Short Loan Collection FRE/618462.

      7. The orientation of hieroglyphs: Part 1: Reversals - Fischer, Henry George 1977

        Book Optional

      8. The Representation and Identification of Cities on Assyrian Reliefs - R. Jacoby 1991

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA Periodicals I.

      9. The Bible in the British Museum: interpreting the evidence - Mitchell, T. C., British Museum c1988

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main Library A220.93 /721980.

      10. Art and inscriptions in the ancient world - Newby, Zahra, Leader-Newby, Ruth E. 2007

        Book Optional

      11. Archives and libraries in the Ancient Near East, 1500-300 B.C - Pedersén, Olof 1998

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QB027 /768461 and /769231.

      12. Re-Materialising Script and Image - K. E. Piquette

        Chapter Recommended A detailed study of the materiality of Late Predynastic/Early Dynastic tags, including those from Abydos Tomb U-j, which formed the basis of the authors doctoral dissertation. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 5th Floor and 4th Gallery (63) LM2 Cur.

      13. Text and Figure in Ancient Mesopotamia: Match and Mismatch - J. N. Postgate

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ARCHAEOLOGY South Block 7th Floor (63) LAD Anc.

      14. Proportion and style in ancient Egyptian art - Robins, Gay, Fowler, Ann S. 1994

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main Library FRE.L/717006.

      15. Brick architecture in Ancient Egypt - Spencer, A. Jeffrey 1979

        Book Optional

    6. VI. The Materiality of Texts 3 items
      This section includes material that is helpful for understanding theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of ancient texts, including the 'text as object' idea discussed throughout the course.
      1. Agency in ancient writing - Englehardt, J. 2012

        Book 

      2. Scarab - K.M. Cooney 2008

        Chapter Optional

      3. Writing as material practice: substance, surface and medium - R. Whitehouse, K. Piquette 2013

        Book Recommended A collection of papers from a UCL conference on the materiality of writing, covering material from Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Levant, Greece, Italy, Mesoamerica and Europe. The entire book can be downloaded using this link: http://www.ubiquitypress.com/files/009-writingasmaterialpractice.pdf

    7. VII. Source Material: Texts in Translation 16 items
      1. The Etruscan Language - G. Bonfante, L. Bonfante 2002

        Book Recommended See section III Study Aids: Sources (pp 132-185) for useful translations of a range of Etruscan tests. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WUT Bon.

      2. Letters of the great kings of the ancient Near East: the royal correspondence of the late Bronze Age - Bryce, Trevor 2003

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QC890 /915902.

      3. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation - Chavalas, Mark W. 2006

        Book Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Anc; SOAS QC930 /964774 and /995338.

      4. The raging torrent: historical inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia relating to Ancient Israel - Cogan, Mordechai 2008

        Book Recommended Also available at: SOAS QED956.9401 /725603.

      5. Bound for Exile: Israelites and Judeans under Imperial Yoke. Documents from Assyria and Babylonia - M. Cogan 2013

        Book Optional Currently on order to both the Institute of Archaeology and SOAS libraries (as of December 2013).

      6. Curse tablets and binding spells from the ancient world - Gager, John G. 1992

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC133.44 /694516.

      7. Letters from the Hittite kingdom - Hoffner, Harry A., Beckman, Gary M. c2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QGC939.3 /730679.

      8. Women in the ancient Near East: a sourcebook - Chavalas, Mark W. 2014

        Book Optional A collection of primary sources relating to the role of women in the Near East, newly translated and with commentaries. Useful if studying gender issues, and female literacy. Also available at SOAS (Main Library QB305.4 / 757155).

      9. Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Book Recommended A copy of the first edition is also available at (but not the preferred version): EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC; SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.108 /906668.

      10. Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. Volume II: The New Kingdom - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Book Recommended A copy of the first edition is also available at (but not the preferred version): EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC; SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.108 /906668.

      11. Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. Volume III: the Late Period - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Book Recommended A copy of the first edition is also available at (but not the preferred version): EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC; SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.108 /906668.

      12. Ancient Near Eastern texts relating to the Old Testament - Pritchard, James Bennett c1969

        Book Optional The third, revised edition is the preferred version. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Pri; SOAS Main Library L QC890 /330793 and L Ref QC890 /330789.

      13. Greek historical inscriptions: 404-323 BC - Rhodes, P. J., Osborne, Robin c2003

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LDP Gre.

      14. The literature of ancient Egypt: an anthology of stories, instructions, stelae, autobiographies, and poetry - Simpson, William Kelly, Ritner, Robert Kriech 2003

        Book Recommended Please use the third edition.

      15. Zikh Rasna: a manual of the Etruscan language and inscriptions - R. Wallace 2008

        Book Optional A good source of Etruscan inscriptions in translation; some of the introductory material is also useful, although you will find this very much focused on aspects of language.

    8. VIII. Online object databases 4 items
      1. British Museum - collection database search

        Website Recommended A useful resource for a range of ancient texts, many of which have good quality photographs attached. You will also find the British Museum website has various articles about ancient writing systems and the different cultures you will encounter in this course.

      2. IoA collections database

        Website Optional This is a searchable database of the material in the Institute of Archaeology's Collections at UCL. You can use it to find out more about objects on display in the Leventis Gallery, on the ground floor of the Institute, or seen in your object handling classes. Only some items have associated images.

      3. Penn Museum - Online Collections Home

        Webpage Recommended University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology's online database.

      4. The Petrie Museum database

        Website Recommended Objects in the collections of the Petrie Museum of Egyptology at UCL. Almost all objects have images provided, but the amount of information provided can be limited.

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