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This list relates to the academic year Academic Year 2014/15 which ended on 01/07/2015
This list has been archived
  1. If you notice any broken links or missing digitised readings in this list, please contact the course co-ordinator, Rachael Sparks (r.sparks@ucl.ac.uk)

  2. How to use this list 1 item
    Everyone should look at the priority readings before Friday's class. Some are specifically needed for the general discussion section of the seminar. Additional reading should be added at your discretion, to make up the 8 hours of reading per week expected for this course.
    1. In addition, anyone doing a seminar presentation should begin with the essential readings for their topic, and supplement these with items from the 'priority' or 'other reading' sections.

       

      If an item of reading you need is not available, choose something else from the list, or contact the course co-ordinator for alternative suggestions.

       

      Any item that can be downloaded will be marked 'Digitised reading available'.

       

      IoA = Institute of Archaeology library, MAIN = main UCL Library.

  3. Lecture 1 - Introduction: the rationale and structure of the course 0 items
    This session explains the aims and format of the course, what resources are available, and what will be expected of students in terms of oral presentations and written work. Copies of the course handbook will be disseminated and students will be assigned to their seminar groups. The following seminar session will be used to develop personal theories on what constitutes a 'text'.
  4. Lecture 2 - The nature of the surviving evidence 19 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Papyrus - B. Leach, J. Tait

        Chapter Essential Read this to prepare for the general discussion part of today's seminar. Consider particularly the conditions under which papyrus will, and will not survive in the archaeological record. Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FRE.L /725149.

      2. The evidence for early writing: utilitarian or ceremonial? - Nicholas Postgate, Tao Wang, Toby Wilkinson 09/1995

        Article Essential This paper uses evidence from Egypt, Mesopotamia and China to examine the impact of differential preservation of various materials on our understanding of how early writing was used. Read this to prepare for the general discussion part of today's seminar. Digitised reading available. Hard copy at IoA: Periodicals A.

      3. The Antiquities Market, Sensationalized Textual Data, and Modern Forgeries: Introduction to the Problem and Synopsis of the 2004 Israeli Indictment. - C.A. Rollston, A.G. Vaughn 2006

        Article Essential An article discussing the ethical dimensions of textual studies, and some of the problems that can arise when academics and museums embrace unprovenanced texts. Digitised reading available.

      4. Miles of Clay: Information Management in the Ancient Near Eastern Hittite Empire - T. van den Hout 2003

        Webpage Essential This paper addresses the question of why records were kept, and how we might interpret the way they were stored. It also presents the case study of the tablets found at Bogazkoy, capital of the Hittites - and the interpretative problems that ensue when you don't record archaeological contexts for this type of material. Available online.

    2. Seminar question 2.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation "How were cuneiform texts stored in the Near East? What does this tell us about the way they were used?"
      1. Ebla: An Empire Rediscovered - P. Matthiae 1980

        Book Essential The site of Ebla in Syria provides a good case study for the value of properly recording the archaeological findspots of groups of cuneiform tablets. Numerous tablets were discovered in the destruction of palace G at this site, some in situ, some in the process of being rescued from the fire. Copies in other libraries: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY 7th Floor (63) LKF EBL Mat; SOAS QHG939.4 /428526.

      2. Miles of Clay: Information Management in the Ancient Near Eastern Hittite Empire - T. van den Hout 2003

        Webpage Essential This paper addresses the question of why records were kept, and how we might interpret the way they were stored. It also presents the case study of the tablets found at Bogazkoy, capital of the Hittites - and the interpretative problems that ensue when you don't record archaeological contexts for this type of material. It makes a good case study to compare with the evidence from Ebla. Available online.

    3. General discussion questions

      There are two issues for general discussion this week. Look at the priority readings above to prepare.

      1. Does the exact provenance or findspot of texts really matter? Consider the article by ROLLSTON and VAUGHN 2006.

    4. 2. What effect does the material used for recording texts have on their survival? Is this distorting the ancient record? Read LEACH & TAIT 2000, and POSTGATE et al. 1995.

    5. Other reading 11 items
      1. The Inscribed Pomegranate from the "House of the Lord" - N. Avigad 1990

        Article Optional This article (and those by Goren et al. and Lemaire below) discuss a controversial object that was purchased by the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and whose authenticity came to be questioned. The discussion raises the problems that using unprovenanced material can raise for scholarly understanding of the past. Digitised reading available. Additional copies at: SOAS Per 107L 355717.

      2. Anyang Writing and the Origin of the Chinese Writing System - R. W. Bagley

        Chapter Recommended We don't discuss early Chinese writing in class, but it makes an interesting case study, and some of you may want to explore this further in your course essay. This article would be a good starting point for that. Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Houston]; SOAS A411.09 /951246.

      3. Archives and Libraries in the Ancient Near East - J. Tait, J.A. Black 2000

        Chapter Recommended This is an introduction to the way people stored and used texts in antiquity; don't get too hung up on the definition of what distinguishes an archive from a library though. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824

      4. The Decipherment of Ancient Near Eastern Scripts - P. T. Daniels 2000

        Chapter Recommended This will give you a good background to the decipherment history of some Near Eastern scripts and the problems encountered.. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

      5. Dialogues between Ancient near Eastern Texts and the Archaeological Record: Test Cases from Bronze Age Syria - Marie-Henriette Gates 05/1988

        Article Optional Gates looks at how cuneiform texts can be linked to the physical spaces they come from, and associated archaeological materials, showing the value of an integrated approach to this material. Digitised reading available.

      6. A Re-examination of the Inscribed Pomegranate from the Israel Museum - Y. Goren, S. Ahituv, A. Ayalon, M. Bar-Matthews 2005

        Article Recommended This and the articles by Avigad and Lemaire in this section discuss a controversial object that was purchased by the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and whose authenticity came to be questioned. The discussion raises the problems that using unprovenanced material can raise for scholarly understanding of the past. Digitised reading available. Also available at IoA: PERS I and SOAS Per 5 74853.

      7. A Re-examination of the Inscribed Pomegranate: A Rejoinder - A. Lemaire 2006

        Article Optional A response to Goren et al. 2005; Lemaire is the scholar who originally identified the inscription as genuine. Digitised reading available. Also available at IoA: PERS I and SOAS Per 5 74853.

      8. Between Theory, Texts and Archaeology: Working with the Shadows - S. Sherratt 2011

        Chapter Recommended Does what it says on the tin; a pragmatic approach to problems in archaeological theory and the use of textual and archaeological evidence, framed within the parameters of a conference on Mediterranean contact. While the whole is worth reading, if you are short of time focus on the section called 'Texts and Archaeology', pp 6-10.

      9. Case in Point: The Persepolis Fortification Archive - M.W. Stolper 2014

        Chapter Recommended This explores the value of cuneiform archives, and the type of things you can discover when you have discover an assemblage like this in situ, with all its associations. It would be useful for the course essay on how holistic approaches to texts can be useful. It also explores some ethical dimensions of this material, as well as the value of imaging techniques in reading this type of artefact.

      10. Archives of Alalah IV in Archaeological Context - E. Von Dassow 2005

        Article Optional Alalakh, also known as Tell Atchana, is a site in Turkey, where an important archive of Bronze Age cuneiform texts was found, which tells us a lot about local politics and trade. This article considers their context. Digitised reading available. Also available at: IoA PERS B.

      11. Reconstructing the World of Ancient Mesopotamia: Divided Beginnings and Holistic History - R.L. Zettler 2003

        Article Optional This raises a number of useful points about the value of looking at the context of textual material. Digitised reading available. Also available at: IoA PERS J.

  5. Lecture 3 - The development and operation of early writing systems 20 items
    1. There are no seminar presentations this week - instead we will be doing an object handling session.

    2. Priority Reading 2 items
      1. The Origins of Writing as a Problem of Historical Epistemology - P. Damerow 2006

        Article Essential Where and how does writing start? This article might give you some ideas.

      2. Reading the Past: Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet - J.T. Hooker 1990

        Book Essential This is a really useful book if you want to find out how different writing systems work. For the seminar, read at least TWO chapters of your choice from: Cuneiform, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Linear B or The Early Alphabet. Note that the chapters in this book have also been published as individual monographs (Chadwick 1987, Davies 1987, Healey 1990, Walker 1987 - the library also has copies of these). Also available at SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker]; SOAS A411.09 /607197.

    3. Other Reading 17 items
      1. Mesopotamian writing systems 7 items
        1. Tokenism - P. Michalowski 1993

          Article Recommended Not everybody agrees with Schmandt-Besserat's take on what tokens signify. Read this review of her work to find out why. You might also want to read Glassner 2003, and Shendge 1983's critiques. Also available at IoA Periodicals A and SOAS Per 28/ 68177

        2. The Archaic Texts from Uruk - Hans J. Nissen 1986

          Article Recommended This includes a discussion of the archaeological context of the archaic text corpus from Uruk level IV. If you are investigating how and where writing first appears in Mesopotamia, then you should read this piece to understand the archaeological context of some key data. Also available at: IoA periodicals W.

        3. The Scribes and Scholars of Ancient Mesopotamia - L.E. Pearce 2000

          Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

        4. Use of Writing Among the Assyrians - O. Pedersen 1997

          Chapter Optional Also available at IoA: DBB 100 Qto WAE and SOAS L QDB935 /747128.

        5. The Written Record - J. N. Postgate

          Chapter Recommended Postgate provides a good overview of this material. Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY SHL South Block 7th Floor (63) LJA Pos; SOAS QD935 /635635.

        6. Record Keeping Before Writing - D. Schmandt-Besserat 2000

          Chapter Optional The theory about Near Eastern token use is explained here by its most vocal supporter; it is suggested that this 'pre-writing' system for managing information led to the development of Late Uruk proto-writing. Also available: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

        7. Tablets as Artefacts, Scribes as Artisans - J. Taylor 2011

          Chapter Recommended You'll be handling some replica cuneiform tablets in this week's seminar. This article gives some background on this type of material, exploring the physical character of cuneiform tablets, and giving a good idea of the variability of size and shape found. It also looks at tablet biographies - how they were made, written, used and reused. A copy is also available at SOAS main library QC930 /739763.

      2. Egyptian writing systems 5 items
        1. The Earliest Egyptian Writing: Development, Context, Purpose - J. Baines 2004

          Chapter Recommended Baines has a lot of interesting things to say about early Egyptian writing; highly recommended. Also available: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Houston]; SOAS A411.09 /951246.

        2. Origins of Egyptian Writing - K. A. Bard

          Chapter Optional This article was written some time ago, and before the Abydos U-j data had come to light. Bear that in mind when she talks about the earliest evidence for Egyptian writing. Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63), LM7 Fol.

        3. Tomb U-j, a Royal Burial of Dynasty O at Abydos - G. Dreyer 2011

          Article Recommended This tomb is at the centre of the debate about the earliest Egyptian writing. This paper will give you the excavator's own views on what was found and what it all means. Also available at IoA: EGYPTOLOGY B 11 TEE.

        4. The Emergence of Writing in Egypt - J. D. Ray 1986

          Article Optional A good introduction to early uses of Egyptian writing, but keep in mind that additional evidence has become available since this was written (see DREYER above). Digitised reading. Also available at IoA: Periodicals W.

        5. Tomb U-j at Abydos and the Origins of Writing - D. Wengrow

          Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63), LMA Wen; SOAS FRE /975237.

      3. The early alphabet 4 items
        1. Two Early Alphabetic Inscriptions from the Wadi el-Ḥôl: New Evidence for the Origin of the Alphabet from the Western Desert of Egypt - J.C. Darnell, F.W. Dobbs-Allsopp, M. Lundberg, P. Kyle McCarter 2005

          Article Optional Publication of two short, but highly significant early inscriptions in a West Semitic alphabetic script. But what are they doing in Egypt? Read this to find out!

        2. Wadi el-Hol - J.C. Darnell 2013

          Book Optional This is a general encyclopaedia entry on Wadi el-Hol, where the earliest Semitic alphabetic inscription has been found, along with other graffiti and texts from a range of periods. This is useful for getting a quick background to the site, and the type of material found. For more in depth discussion of the alphabetic inscription, see Darnell et al. 2005.

        3. The Infancy of the Alphabet - A. R. Millard 1986

          Article Recommended We all know about how the Phoenicians gave the alphabet to the Western world; but where did they get it? This explains how the alphabet came to be created. Note that Millard doesn't include the Wadi el-Hol inscriptions in his discussion, as they had not yet been found when this paper was written. Also available at IoA PERS W.

        4. The Probable Inventors of the First Alphabet: Semites Functioning as rather High Status Personnel in a Component of the Egyptian Apparatus - C. Rollston 2010

          Article Recommended A good summary of evidence for the development of the Proto-Canaanite (aka Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet, and of the debate surrounding the circumstances of its invention. Also published as an ASOR Blog. Goldwasser replied to this article in 2012 in the Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 4.2, 9-22. See also Goldwasser 2006 (in general reading at end of list).

      4. Comparative works 1 item
        1. ARCHAEOLOGY: Writing Gets a Rewrite - A. Lawler 2001-6-29

          Article Optional A short 'journalistic' article comparing the writing systems of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. This is a good starting point, but you should supplement it with more detailed sources; bear in mind this was written by a journalist.

  6. Lecture 4 - Text and object: uses of alphabetic writing in the Greek World 20 items
    1. Priority Reading 3 items
      1. Greek Inscriptions - B.F. Cook 1987

        Book Essential This is a great survey of the subject, covering where the alphabet came from, and the different types of objects on which it was used. Don't forget to study the pictures! Also available at SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LDP Coo. If you can't find the monograph, it was also published as a chapter in: HOOKER's 1990 Reading the Past (see week 3 reading for full classmark details).

      2. All Runes to Me - A.W. Johnston 1997

        Chapter Essential Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3761).

      3. The Uses of Writing on Early Greek Painted Pottery - A. Snodgrass

        Chapter Essential A nicely archaeological take on a body of texts, in this case, Attic inscribed vessels. Snodgrass covers a range of aspects, including the social contexts in which this type of writing was used. Digitised reading. Also available at SENATE HOUSE ART South Block 4th Floor Mx South Gallery V3AG Wor.

    2. Seminar question 4.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation "Why do you think the Greeks adopted alphabetic writing? Consider the types of texts and objects on which this writing first appears, and their contexts of use".
      1. Why Was the Greek Alphabet Invented? The Epigraphical Evidence - B.B. Powell 1989

        Article Essential Writing seems incredibly useful to us now, but try and imagine what it was like in a society that didn't have it. Greece had managed perfectly well without writing for several centuries - so why did they suddenly decide to take up this new fangled invention of the alphabet?

      2. Visible Writing: Questions of Script and Identity in Early Iron Age Greece and Cyprus - S. Sherratt 2003

        Article Essential Susan Sherratt approaches the question of 'Why Write?' from a more ideological point of view. Also available at IoA: Periodicals O.

    3. Seminar question 4.2 4 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation "To what extent was Greek writing merely ‘decoration using letters’ in the period c. 800-400 BC?"
      1. All Runes to Me - A.W. Johnston 1997

        Chapter Essential

      2. Inscriptions on Greek Vases - F. Lissarrague 2002

        Chapter Essential Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall fol. CC25.2 [Christin].

      3. You can supplement these sources with visual material from COOK 1987 (see priority reading above), EASTERLING & HANDLEY 2001, and JEFFREY 1989 (see under 'other reading'). This presentation will need to have a strong visual element to it: the British Museum's online database is a useful source of images (http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/advanced_search.aspx)

    4. 4.3 General Discussion question

      Consider the ways in which Greek writing was presented visually. What practical techniques were used to assist the reader?

      • To help you answer this, look closely at illustrations of Greek inscribed objects (COOK 1987 and EASTERLING & HANDLEY 2001 are good sources for these) and think how visual presentation of a text influences its clarity, and a reader's expectations.

    5. Other Reading 10 items
      1. The Origins of the Inscribed Greek Stela - J. Davies 2005

        Chapter Optional This is a good summary of the early uses of writing, with a strong awareness of the types of objects on which texts appear and the variability of available material. It shows how certain uses of text develop over time. Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC411.09 /937203.

      2. The Greek Alphabets - C. Dobias-Lalou 2002

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall fol. CC25.2 [Christin].

      3. Greek Scripts; an Illustrated Introduction - P. Easterling, C. Handley 2001

        Book Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.2 [Easterling].

      4. Field Sports: Engaging Greek Archaeology and History - L. Foxhall 2004

        Chapter Optional Also available at: MAIN ANCIENT HISTORY A 8 SAU and SENATE HOUSE ARCHAEOLOGY South Block 7th Floor (63) LA3 Arc .

      5. Argos' Victory over Corinth - A.H. Jackson 2000

        Article Optional Also available: MAIN PAPYROLOGY Pers Z.

      6. The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and its Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C. - L.H. Jeffery 1989

        Book Recommended Also available at: SENATE HOUSE CLASSICS South Block 6th Floor (3) XEH Jed.

      7. The Extent and Use of Literacy: the Archaeological Evidence - A. Johnston 1983

        Chapter Optional This article assumes a certain amount of prior knowledge of the material; it looks at early Greek inscriptions in Italy and Greece, discusses the forms of the letters used, and to some extent the purposes of the texts.

      8. Greek letters at Osteria dell'Osa - D. Ridgway 1996

        Article Recommended Osteria dell'Osa is an important site, as it is here that the earliest alphabetic inscription in the Mediterranean was found. Nobody can tell which language it records, but the four short letters that appear on a rather plain jug in a tomb at the site show that an alphabetic script had been adopted in Italy by 775 BC at the latest. This article will provide useful contextualisation for that discovery. A copy is available in the Institute of Archaeology Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3767)

      9. The Study of Greek Inscriptions - A.G. Woodhead 1992

        Book Optional Multiple editions available.

  7. Lecture 5 - Taking Writing to the West. The Social Contexts and Script Diversity of Pre-Roman Italy 18 items
    1. Priority Reading 2 items
      1. The Tyranny of the Evidence: a Discussion of the Possible Uses of Literacy in Etruria and Latium in the Archaic Age - T.J. Cornell 1991

        Chapter Essential A critical article, which questions the traditional view of who had access to writing in archaic Central Italy, by focusing on the issues of bias in the archaeological record (a similar approach was taken by Postgate et al. in your week 2 readinig). Not digitised - so make sure you visit the library to read this one. You'll be expected to know the basis of Cornell's argument (and how it relates to the position held by Stoddard and Whitley) for our seminar discussion this week.

      2. The social context of literacy in Archaic Greece and Etruria - Simon Stoddart, James Whitley 12/1988

        Article Essential The authors take a comparative at the frequency and type of inscriptions in Greece, Crete and Italy, and use this to draw conclusions about levels of literacy in these regions. This article takes a very different position to Cornell's one. You need to look at the key evidence both sets of authors use, then try and understand why they should end up coming to such different conclusions. Whose argument do you find most convincing, and why? Digitised reading available. Also available at: IoA Periodicals A.

    2. Seminar question 5.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation: "Is there a relationship between urbanization, state formation and literacy in Iron Age Italy?" Note that this presentation topic has not been assigned for the 2014 session.
      1. Writing Boundaries: Literacy and Identity in the Ancient Veneto, 600-300 BC - K. Lomas 2007

        Chapter Essential Our lecture this week focuses on material from Etruria - but this is just one of the different cultures and regions in Italy to make use of an alphabetic script. Lomas' article explores how writing was used in Northern Italy, in an area known as the Veneto. You may know it from its modern regional capital, Venice.

    3. Seminar question 5.2 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation on: "What role did women have in Iron Age Italy vis-à-vis literacy".
      1. The Asp’s Poison: Women and Literacy in Iron Age Italy - T. Hodos

        Chapter Essential This article challenges traditional views on the level of female literacy, and asks the reader to reconsider their own biases when interpreting the past. A useful companion piece, about female literacy in ancient Egypt, is Shubert 2001 (see reading for week 6). Digitised reading.

      2. The Woman's Role - A. Rallo 2000

        Chapter Essential

    4. General Discussion Question

      "Was literacy socially exclusive? How easily can we tell from the archaeological evidence of Archaic Central Italy?"

    5. Other Reading 11 items
      1. Mnamon: Ancient Writing Systems in the Mediterranean: A Critical Guide to Electronic Resources - C. Ampolo 2009

        Website Optional This is a portal for accessing information about a range of writing systems (not just those of ancient Italy). But relevant for this week's material, you can find out about Etruscan, Lepontic, Faliscan, Latin, Messapian, Oscan, Raetic, Umbrian and Venetic - not to mention lots of other scripts you may have only heard about. There's also useful descriptions of the materials people write on, and the tools they write with. Explore and enjoy! Available on the web.

      2. Etruscan - L. Bonfante 1990

        Chapter Recommended This is a good place to start, if you want an overview of Etruscan writing, written by a leading expert in Etruscan language. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker]; SOAS A411.09 /607197. This reading is also available in monograph form: Bonfante, L. 1990. Etruscan, London: British Museum Publications: see IoA: GE 102 BON, MAIN: COMP. PHIL. B 32 BON.

      3. The Etruscan Language - G. Bonfante, L. Bonfante 2002

        Book Optional This is really useful as a source of background information on Etruscan archaeology, details of Etruscan language, and for a series of translations of a range of Etruscan texts with good supporting images. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WUT Bon.

      4. The Script of Ancient Italy - D. Briquel 2002

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall fol. CC25.2 [Christin].

      5. Greek letters at Osteria dell'Osa - D. Ridgway 1996

        Article Recommended Osteria dell'Osa is an important site, as it is here that the earliest alphabetic inscription in the Mediterranean was found. Nobody can tell which language it records, but the four short letters that appear on a rather plain jug in a tomb at the site show that an alphabetic script had been adopted in Italy by 775 BC at the latest. This article will provide useful contextualisation for that discovery. This article also appears on last week's reading list.

      6. Undeciphered Scripts - A. Robinson

        Chapter Optional There's lots of ancient writing that we can't actually read. Find out why. Robinson discusses the Indus Valley script, which you may recall from our week 3 object handling session, Linear A, the Phaistos disc (probably a fake), Proto-Elamite, the Easter Island script of Rongorongo, and - relevant to this week's subject matter - Etruscan writing. Part of the problem with Etruscan stems from the nature of surviving inscriptions (often short and formulaic) and the fact that we don't know the roots of the underlying language. We can vocalise it, as we know what sounds Etruscan letters represent, but that isn't the same as understanding what the words mean. Digitised reading

      7. Inscriptions in Latium - C.J. Smith 1996

        Chapter Optional I've put this in to give you a feel for how writing was used in other Italian regions and cultures. Latium, of course, is the area that gave birth to the Romans, and Latin. We don't cover it specifically in class, but you could always use it as a case study in your course essay, if you are interested in this region. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LUB Smi

      8. The Origins and Development of the Latin Alphabet - R. Wallace

        Chapter Optional This article looks at how the Romans borrowed Etruscan script for writing Latin from c.650 BC, giving some early examples of inscriptions, discussing their variability and showing how the borrowed script was modified for its new use. It's a reminder of regional variability in writing practice, and how it takes a while for writing norms to develop. The article also looks at how different styles of writing developed for writing on different materials, or for different purposes, and how it was that Latin writing spread beyond the borders of Latium. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1; SOAS A411.09 /657348

      9. Muluvanice Inscriptions at Poggio Civitate (Murlo) - Rex E. Wallace 2008

        Article Optional Etruscan inscriptions can be very formulaic. This article focuses on one specific type of inscription, the muluvanice inscription, which is used when making votive offerings. The discussion of how to read the fragmentary texts from the site under review also gives an insight into how scholars make sense of incomplete texts.

      10. Veneti & Etruscans: Issues of Language, Literacy and Learning - R. Whitehouse, J. Wilkins 2006

        Chapter Optional An interesting paper that examines the materiality of writing in Northeastern Italy, the area of the ancient Veneti. It discusses the uses of Venetic writing and explores theories about the relationship between the Etruscan and Venetic scripts.

      11. The Economic Agency of the Etruscan Temple - H. Becker 2009

        Chapter Recommended A useful article about the significance of votive offerings, including those with inscribed dedications (muluvanice or turce inscriptions). Although this focuses on the Etruscan temple, you may also find it helpful in understanding votive practices on a broader level.

  8. Lecture 6 - Writing and society in ancient Egypt 21 items
    1. Priority Reading 5 items
      1. Four Notes on Literacy - J. R. Baines, C. J. Eyre

        Chapter Essential There's a lot of smoke and mirrors in this article; try and cut through it to the actual evidence for literacy available. Do you think the reasoning used sound? And what sort of methodology can we adopt to figure out who could read and write in antiquity? Digitised reading

      2. Literacy and Letters at Deir el-Medina - J. J. Janssen 1992

        Chapter Essential The site of Deir el Medina gets introduced in this week's lecture: this is where the workmen who built the tombs in the Valley of the Kings lived with their families. Lots of Egyptian texts have been found here, making it a useful source of information about Egyptian literacy. However because of the specialised nature of the workforce, it has been argued that the town might not be typical of literacy levels across Egypt as a whole. Also available at: SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.1 /725247.

      3. The Report of Wenamun - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Chapter Essential Read this or the Simpson translation; the commentary from the earlier Breasted translation is also useful (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/wenamen.htm).

      4. The Report of Wenamun - E.F. Wente 2003

        Chapter Essential Read this or the Lichtheim translation; the commentary from the earlier Breasted translation is also useful (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/wenamen.htm).

      5. Does She or Doesn’t She? Female Literacy in Ancient Egypt - S. B. Shubert

        Chapter Recommended A thorough review of the evidence for, and against, female literacy in Egypt. Don't miss this one! Digitised reading

    2. Seminar question 6.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation on: "What do we know about how Egyptian scribes were trained? How does this compare with what we know of scribal training elsewhere in the Near East?"
      1. Texts, Tablets and Teaching. Scribal Education in Nippur and Ur - S. Tinney 1998

        Article Essential Although week 6 focuses on writing in Egypt, its useful to step back and try and compare practices in different cultures and regions. What are the similarities in training, and what are the differences? Think about what sort of evidence we have for how people learned to read and write, and what implications that evidence holds for who has access to this technology. Also available at: IoA periodicals E

      2. The Scribes of Ancient Egypt - E. Wente 2000

        Chapter Essential This is an encyclopaedia entry; it should give you a good overview of the evidence for professionally trained writers in ancient Egypt. As always, when reading synthetic pieces like this, pay attention to the data that lies behind the ideas and interpretations. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930 /725824.

    3. 6.2 General Discussion

      Discuss the debate on literacy levels in ancient Egypt. How can we identify literacy through the archaeological record?

    4. 6.3 General Discussion

      "What can the Tale of Wenamun tell us about language and literacy in the Egyptian world? Consider particularly how writing and documentation of past events are mentioned within the text".

    5. Other Reading 12 items
      1. On Wenamun as a literary text - J. Baines 1999

        Chapter Optional Book is available at: ISSUE DESK IoA ASS

      2. Egyptian Influence in the Akkadian Texts Written by Egyptian Scribes in the Fourteenth and Thirteenth Centuries B. C. E. - Z. Cochavi-Rainey 1990

        Article Optional The author studies a series of key texts (The Amarna Letters, the treaty of Ramses II with the Hittites), analysing the use of language and phrasing to detect evidence that they were written by Egyptian scribes, trained in using the cuneiform script and Akkadian language for international diplomatic documents of this type. A good example of how detailed textual analysis can reveal something of how scribes operated.

      3. Biographical texts from Ramessid Egypt - Frood, E. and Baines, J. 2007

        Book Optional See especially Chapter VI: Texts from Deir el-Medina, 219-232, for a series of stelae made for local workmen. Available online.

      4. Scribes and Scribal Activity at Deir el-Medina - B. J. J. Haring 2006

        Chapter Optional Deir el-Medina is an Egyptian village dating to the New Kingdom, used to house the people working on royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Queens, near Thebes. Surviving texts and archaeological remains give us a good idea of how the inhabitants lived. The site makes a good case study of the different ways in which writing was employed here; the question is, were literacy levels typical for elsewhere in Egypt at this time?

      5. Inscriptions from the Palace of Amenhotep III - W.C. Hayes 1951

        Article Recommended We discuss this material during this week's lecture; Hayes examines inscriptions on a number of storage vessels from the palace, and shows just how useful analysis of this type of functional text can be.

      6. The Saite 'Demoticisation' of Southern Egypt - C. J. Martin 2007

        Chapter Optional

      7. Quelques Textes Scolaires Paléo-babyloniens Rédigés par des Femmes - B. Lion, E. Robson 2005

        Article Recommended Yes, I know its in French, but this article is very useful on the issue of female scribes in Mesopotamia, for comparison with the data on female literacy in Egypt (see Shubert in this week's reading) and Italy (see Hodos in the reading for last week). So if you can read French, please check it out! There's also a 2011 English by Lion on the same topic you can look at (see under section IV).

      8. The Wine Jars Speak: A Text Study - E.-L. Wahlberg 2012

        Book Recommended Wahlberg presents a detailed study of the texts found on wine jars of the New Kingdom period from Tell el-Amarna, Tutankhamen's Tomb, and at the village of Deir el Medina. Some of the primary data may also be found in Cerny 1965, and see also Hayes 1951. We discuss some of this material in the lecture for this week - here is where you can see how far this sort of analysis can go.

      9. Egyptian Amphorae of the New Kingdom and Ramesside Periods - B.G. Wood 1987

        Article Optional In the week 6 lecture, we discuss various types of text associated with Egyptian amphorae in palatial and royal tomb contexts. This will provide you with a better understanding of the objects behind the texts.

  9. Lecture 7 - The Hebrew Bible and the archaeology of Iron Age Israel 24 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Mesha and the Naming of Names - B. Routledge

        Chapter Essential This includes a translation of the text, and some useful background information that will help you contextualise it. For another translation, see SCHMIDT 2006 below. Digitised reading.

      2. The Moabite Stone - B. B. Schmidt 2006

        Chapter Essential Read the translation of the text and commentary. For another translation, see ROUTLEDGE 2004 above. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Anc; SOAS QC930 /964774 and /995338.

      3. BibleGateway.com: A searchable online Bible in over 100 versions and 50 languages.

        Website Essential Read 2 Kings 3: 4-27. Try reading the passage using different translations, to get an idea of the variation between versions. Available online.

      4. Getting at the 'History Behind the History' - W. Dever

        Chapter Essential Dever has written extensively on the match, or mismatch, between archaeology and the Old Testament; you should be aware of his work. Digitised reading.

    2. General Discussion Question

      This week there will be an object handling session in place of the usual student presentations. This will include a consideration of a cast of the Mesha stela; please consider the following question in advance of the session: 'Consider the Mesha Stele and its significance to our understanding of contemporary history. How does its version of events compare with the biblical account?'. As preparation for this, read a translation of the text of the Mesha Stele (also known as the Moabite Stone) and the passage from 2 Kings 3: 47-27 listed above.

       

    3. Other Reading 19 items
      1. Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae - E. Arie, Yuval Goren, I. Samet 2011

        Chapter Recommended A good example of how detailed study of the materiality of a text can enhance our understanding of its significance and meaning. Also a useful tool in fighting contamination of datasets by unprovenanced forgeries.

      2. On Site Identifications Old and New: The Example of Tell el-Hesi - Jeffrey A. Blakely, Fred L. Horton Jr 2001

        Article Optional Also available: IoA Periodicals N.

      3. John Garstang's Excavations at Jericho: A Cautionary Tale - F. Cobbing 2009

        Article Optional Jericho has been at the heart of much of the debate to do with the historicity of the Book of Joshua, and the biblical conquest of Canaan narrative. This article will give you an understanding of one of the key elements in the argument, the alleged destruction of the walls of Jericho, and its historical role in the development of the different schools of thought. Unfortunately, the journal this is in is not held at UCL. But you can access an electronic version of this via SENATE HOUSE library (you'll first need to register for a University of London library card at their library desk on the 4th floor).

      4. The Four Room House: Embodying Iron Age Israelite Society - A. Faust, S. Bunimovitz 2003

        Article Optional This discusses one of the common architectural structures of the Iron Age in the Southern Levant; some have seen it as a halmark of Israelite settlement, while others see it as a standard house form related to lifestyle and family structure, but not necessarily ethnicity or religion. Also available at IoA: Periodicals N.

      5. Part I: Introduction and History of Research - I. Finkelstein 1988

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS FW /558608.

      6. Part IV: The Process of Israelite Settlement - I. Finkelstein 1988

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS FW /558608.

      7. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Sacred Texts - I. Finkelstein, N.A. Silberman 2001

        Book Recommended This was written for a popular audience, and sets to examine the archaeological evidence for the historicity of various elements of the Old Testament. For each 'event' (exodus, conquests of Joshua, etc.) it presents first a summary of the biblical version, then an overview of the archaeological evidence and how well this marries with the textual accounts. Chapters 3 to 5 are probably the most useful for this course.

      8. The Inscribed Weights of the Kingdom of Judah - Raz Kletter 1991

        Article Recommended Kletter examines one particular object type - balance weights - and asks whether its distribution and use relates to the political extent of the kingdom of Judah. Also available at IoA: Periodicals T

      9. Royal Judahite Jar Handles: Reconsidering the Chronology of the Stamp Impressions - Oded Lipschits, Omer Sergi, Ido Koch 2010

        Article Recommended This article discusses the so-called LMLK storage jar; a vessel that was marked during manufacture with an official royal seal. People have been debating the significance of this type of inscription for a long time; this article is a good summary and update. Also available at IoA: Periodicals T.

      10. Myth and Politics in Ancient Near Eastern Historiography - M. Liverani, M. von der Mieroop, Z. Bahroni 2004

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ2 Liv; SOAS QB907.2 /925804 and QB907.2 /933980.

      11. The Days of the Judges : Iron Age I (ca. 1200-1000 B.C.E.) - A. Mazar

        Chapter Optional This is one of the basic textbooks available for the archaeology of Israel, although it is becoming a bit dated now. It tends to present a more 'traditional' view of issues, including chronology. Also available at IoA: DBE 100 MAZ; ISSUE DESK IoA MAZ.

      12. A Century of Biblical Archaeology - P. R. S. Moorey 1991

        Book Optional Especially chapters 2-3. This is a study of the history of archaeology in the Southern Levant. Useful when considering the impact of biblical interests on the development of archaeological research in the region.

      13. Did the Authors of the Books of Kings Make Use of Royal Inscriptions? - S. B. Parker 2000

        Article Optional A consideration of the source material behind the composition of part of the Old Testament. Also available at IoA: Periodicals V.

      14. Hymn of Victory of Mer-Ne-Ptah - J. Pritchard 1969

        Chapter Recommended A translation of the 'Israel Stele', which is a victory stele erected by the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah, famous for including the earliest mention of the people of Israel. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Pri; SOAS Main Library L QC890 /330793 and L Ref QC890 /330789. For a more recent translation, see Simpson, W.K. 2003. The Literature of Ancient Egypt, New Haven: Yale University Press, 356-360. (Make sure you use the third edition). EGYPTOLOGY V 20 SIM.

      15. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature - K. L. Sparks 2005

        Book Optional A substantial book, I suggest you dip into this to get a feel for the range of Near Eastern texts that have influenced the composition and style of the Old Testament. Also available at: SOAS Ref QC890 /951633 and QC890 /951578.

      16. In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History - J. Van Seters 1997

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) L43 Van; SOAS QB907.2 /482462.

      17. Egyptian Taskmasters and Heavy Burdens: Highland Exploitation and the Collared-rim Pithos of the Bronze/Iron Age Levant - D. Wengrow 1996

        Article Optional The so-called 'collared rim storage jar' has been identified by some as a halmark of early Israelite material culture; but this traditional interpretation has been disputed by many, including Wengrow. Also available at IoA Periodicals O.

  10. Lecture 8 - The relationship between texts and imagery in the Neo-Assyrian Empire 22 items
    1. Priority Reading 4 items
      1. Multilingual Inscriptions and their Audiences: Cilicia and Lycia - A. Payne 2006

        Chapter Essential How does a multicultural society affect the use of writing? This article looks at monuments that present texts in more than one language, and tries to understand the phenomenon. As you might expect, these sorts of texts are easiest to understand where you put them in their proper geographic and historical context. Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3755). Book also available at: SOAS QC411.09 /995244.

      2. The Importance of Place: Esarhaddon’s Stelae at Til Barsip and Sam’al - B. N. Porter 2001

        Chapter Essential One of my favourite articles on the course, this demonstrates what happens when you critique text, imagery and context thoroughly. Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3756). Book is also available at: SOAS QD935.0072 /813728.

      3. Ideology and Propaganda in Assyrian Art - J. Reade 1979

        Chapter Essential People are used to the idea of the written word being biased, but what about visual imagery? And when you have the two together? Understanding the underlying ideology of those creating texts and images is crucial, as it lets you understand the purposes for which they are made, and their intended audiences. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LI7 Pow; SOAS QB930 /416841.

      4. Art in Empire: the Royal Image and the Visual Dimensions of Assyrian Ideology - I. J. Winter 1997

        Chapter Essential Winter's article helps you get inside the head of Assyrian royalty and understand the role of convention and standardisation within Assyrian visual art. Also available at: SOAS L QDB935.03 /748491.

    2. Seminar Question 8.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the presentation topic: "Discuss the way images can be used to enhance the impact of Neo-Assyrian wall reliefs. What role does associated text play in the process?"
      1. Ideology and Propaganda in Assyrian Art - J. Reade 1979

        Chapter Essential People are used to the idea of the written word being biased, but what about visual imagery? And when you have the two together? Understanding the underlying ideology of those creating texts and images is crucial, as it lets you understand the purposes for which they are made, and their intended audiences. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LI7 Pow; SOAS QB930 /416841.

      2. Art in Empire: the Royal Image and the Visual Dimensions of Assyrian Ideology - I. J. Winter 1997

        Chapter Essential Winter's article helps you get inside the head of Assyrian royalty and understand the role of convention and standardisation within Assyrian visual art. Also available at: SOAS L QDB935.03 /748491. | Edit notes and importance

    3. Seminar Question 8.2 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the presentation on: "Should we read Neo-Assyrian narrative texts and images as history?"
      1. Assyrian Propaganda and the Falsification of History in the Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib - A. Laato 1995

        Article Essential This paper provides a good case study of how 'history' can be edited over time, by those recording it. Also available at: MAIN HEBREW PERS.

      2. Representations, Reality, and Ideology - J. C. Ross

        Chapter Essential Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ4 Arc; SOAS FR /949353.

    4. General Discussion Question

      How can you determine who the original audience of a text was supposed to be? Please consider the articles by PORTER 2001 and PAYNE 2006, listed above under priority reading, to help you answer this question.

    5. Other Reading 13 items
      1. The Raging Torrent. Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel - M. Cogan 2008

        Book Optional A collection of various texts in translation, well worth dipping into to get a feel for the range of material available. Also available at: SOAS QED956.9401 /725603.

      2. Articulating Neo-Assyrian Imperialism at Tell Tayinat - T.P. Harrison 2014

        Chapter Optional Tell Tayinat is a Syrian site that became part of the Neo-Assyrian empire; this article is useful for seeing how Assyrian texts were used in the provinces and for some methodological issues.

      3. Epigraphs and Assyrian Palace Reliefs: The Development of the Epigraphic Text - P. Gerardi 1988

        Article Recommended We discuss some of these points in class, but this article shows you in depth how epigraphs work and develop on narrative relief scenes. Also available at IoA: Periodicals J.

      4. The Representation and Identification of Cities on Assyrian Reliefs - R. Jacoby 1991

        Article Optional Eventually, Assyrian palace reliefs start to provide 'captions' naming some of the cities represented within them. Also available at IoA: Periodicals I.

      5. Now You See It, Now You Don’t! The Monumental Use and Non-Use of Writing in the Ancient Near East - K. A. Kitchen

        Chapter Recommended This gives you a good idea of the variable scale of texts, and how different cultures do, or don't make use of writing in monumental works. Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC411.09 /937203

      6. Assyrian Propaganda and the Falsification of History in the Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib - A. Laato 1995

        Article Recommended This paper provides a good case study of how 'history' can be edited over time, by those recording it. Also available at: MAIN HEBREW PERS.

      7. The Ideology of the Assyrian Empire - M. Liverani 1979

        Chapter Optional Liverani's work has been very influential in Near Eastern archaeology in general, often giving a more theoretical perspective on the issues. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LI7 Pow; SOAS QB930 /416841.

      8. Early Mesopotamian Communicative Systems: Art, Literature, and Writing - P. Michalowski 1990

        Chapter Optional Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3757). Book is also available at: SOAS FR/632117.

      9. Aššurnaṣirpal I and the White Obelisk - J. E. Reade 1975

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: Periodicals I. The White Obelisk is discussed briefly in the lecture this week; you can actually go and see the original in Room 6 at the British Museum. See the online catalogue entry for it at: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/t/the_white_obelisk.aspx.

      10. Representations, Reality, and Ideology - J. C. Ross

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ4 Arc; SOAS FR /949353.

      11. The Writing on the Wall: Studies in the Architectural Context of Late Assyrian Palace Inscriptions - J. M. Russell 1999

        Book Optional Russell is concerned with reconstructing the original layout of the palace reliefs, and their consequent interpretation. All of which would have been less of a problem if they had been excavated and recorded properly in the first place! Also available at: SOAS QEJ935.03 /805087.

      12. Propaganda, Literature, Historiography: Cracking the Code of the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, - H. Tadmor 1997

        Article Optional Also available at: SOAS L QDB935.03 /748491.

      13. Royal Rhetoric and the Development of Historical Narrative in Neo-Assyrian Reliefs - I. J. Winter 2010

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS MAIN FR /739730 (REFERENCE).

  11. Lecture 9 - Text and architecture in Ancient Egypt 27 items
    Richard Bussmann will be appearing as guest lecturer this week.
    1. Priority Reading 3 items
      1. Temple as Cosmos - J. Assmann

        Chapter Essential Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3758). Book is also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LMF Ass.

      2. British Museum - Welcome to the British Museum

        Webpage Essential Consider how the Rosetta stone is presented by the British Museum, in preparation for the general discussion in your seminar. You can also do a web search to see how the stone is portrayed and discussed on the internet in general.

      3. Egyptian Temple Graffiti and the Gods: Appropriation and Ritualization in Karnak and Luxor - E. Frood 2013

        Chapter Essential Richard's lecture this week explores some types of Egyptian graffiti that appear in sacred spaces such as temples and processional routes. This article provides some useful background to the practice, including some of the problems with the data. The actual case studies used here all come from Karnak and Luxor, and date from the 21st to the 25th Dynasties; they show frequent use of image and text together. Frood used RTI (Reflectance Transformation Imaging) when collecting her data in the field.

    2. Seminar question 9.1 2 items
      Essential reading for those preparing the seminar presentation on: "How do Egyptian hieroglyphs and formal art work together visually and spatially?"
      1. Hieroglyphs - M. Collier, W. Manley

        Chapter Essential This book is designed to help people learn hieroglyphs, but is also gives useful insights as to the way in which signs are visually arranged within monumental and other texts. Well worth a read, even if not doing the seminar presentation this week. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WVF Col.

      2. Principles of Egyptian Art - G. Robins

        Chapter Essential Knowing the conventions behind Egyptian art is essential to understanding how particular images are presented, and how they should be read. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ART South Block 4th Floor Mx South Gallery V3AE Rob; SOAS FRE.L /752932 and FRE.L /752933.

    3. General Discussion 4 items
      The Rosetta Stone is an iconic text, now on display in the British Museum. Consider what the original function of this text was, and how its meaning and relevance has changed over time. You should look at one of the books listed below, and check out the object online.
      1. The Rosetta stone - C. Andrews, British Museum 1983

        Book Optional A short booklet that looks at the history of the Rosetta stone, from discovery to decipherment, as well as what the inscription actually says.

      2. The Rosetta Stone - R. Parkinson 2005

        Book Recommended A fabulous little monograph on this most iconic of texts.

      3. The Rosetta Stone and the rebirth of ancient Egypt - J.D. Ray 2007

        Book Optional

      4. British Museum - Welcome to the British Museum

        Webpage Essential The Rosetta Stone is on display in the British Museum in rooms 4 and 1 (the original and a replica). You might want to look at the object in person, and also consider how it is presented by the British Museum there, and on their website: http://www.britishmuseum.org/ ; you can also do a web search to see how the stone is portrayed and discussed on the internet in general.

    4. Course Essays

      We will use the last part of the session to discuss your course essays; please prepare for this by reviewing the available topics and considering any questions you might wish to raise about this material in class.

    5. Other Reading 14 items
      1. Designing the Cosmos: Temples and Temple Decoration - B. M. Bryan 1992

        Chapter Recommended This article is useful in helping you understand the significance of temple design and the composition of image and text within it.

      2. Graffiti (Figural) - E. Cruze-Uribe 2008

        Document Recommended This article provides some useful background to the use of figural and textual 'graffiti' in ancient Egypt. Several examples of this type of text are discussed in the lecture in week 9, with relation to the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the sites of Elephantine and Satet.

      3. Egyptian Hieroglyphs - W. V. Davies 1987

        Book Optional This is a good introduction to the subject of Egyptian hieroglyphs, their significance, and how they work. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WVF Dav; SOAS FRE/752791. This reading is also available in J.T. Hooker (ed.), 1990. Reading the Past. Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet New York: Barnes and Noble at: ISSUE DESK IOA HOO 2; GC HOO; SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker]; SOAS A411.09 /607197.

      4. On Categorization and Metaphorical Structuring: Some Remarks on Egyptian Art and Language - P.J. Frandsen 1997

        Article Recommended This is helpful for understanding the Egyptian approach to visual art, and how hieroglyphs fit into this system. Also available at: IoA Periodicals C

      5. Karnak: the Temple of Amun-Ra-Who-Hears-Prayers - L. Gallet 2013

        Document Recommended The Counter Temple of Amun-Ra at Karnak is mentioned in the course of the week 9 lecture; this article provides further background detail about this building and its function.

      6. Pharaonic Building Inscriptions and Temple Decoration - S. Grallert 2007

        Chapter Recommended Also available at IoA: EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS R 5 DOR.

      7. The Graffiti on the Khonsu Temple Roof at Karnak: A Manifestation of Personal Piety - H. Jacquet-Gordon 2003

        Book Recommended This forms one of the case studies in the week 9 lecture. I'd particularly like you to read the Introduction, pp 1-8; however its also helpful to browse through some of the catalogue entries and images to get a sense of the texts themselves.

      8. The Dynamics of Culture - B. J. Kemp 2006

        Chapter Optional Also available at: IoA: ISSUE DESK IOA KEM; EGYPTOLOGY B5 KEM; SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LME Kem; SOAS FRE/716757 and FRE /588667.

      9. Making Egyptian Temple Decoration Fit the Available Space - D. W. Larkin 2008

        Chapter Recommended

      10. An Architect’s Sketch from the Theban Necropolis - D. Polz 1997

        Article Optional IoA: Periodicals M.

      11. The Plan of a Royal Tomb on O. Cairo 25184 - C. Rossi 2001

        Article Optional IoA: Periodicals G.

      12. Architecture - K. Spence 2007

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading.

      13. Procession - Martin Stadler 2008

        Document Recommended This article provides further information about Egyptian ritual processions, which are discussed in the week 9 lecture in relation to activities in the Temple Complex of Karnak.

    6. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology includes temple reliefs with hieroglyphic inscriptions oriented to the figures of king and god in the Main Gallery beside the back stairs. These demonstrate the inter-relation of script and image in formal temple art. The same rules for orienting hieroglyphs to the figures of deity and worshipper may be seen on the smaller votive and offering-chapel blocks (stelae) in Inscription Cases 1-10 in the same gallery. |

    7. Related monuments 2 items
      1. Koptos reconstruction of wall

        Webpage Optional See the object in the Petrie Museum, or on the Digital Egypt website.

      2. Koptos: UC 14786

        Webpage Optional See the object in the Petrie Museum, or on the Digital Egypt website. You can also look up the object in the Petrie Museum online database (go to http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/ and search for 'UC14786').

  12. Lecture 10 - Using texts as a chronological tool 12 items
    1. Priority Reading 3 items
      1. Dating Coins, Dating with Coins - K Lockyear 2012

        Article Recommended Also aailable at IoA: Periodicals O.

      2. The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin - J. Malek 1982

        Article Essential A detailed study of the Turin Canon, one of the most famous Egyptian King Lists, and its relationship to its source material. This is a good example of how to study fragmentary texts and how transmission errors occur in copied texts. We discussed some of these problems back in week 2 of the course. IoA: Periodicals J. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE STACK SERVICE PR C5o.1 Egypt. Digitised reading available.

      3. Chronology and Periodization - A. J. Spalinger 2001

        Chapter Essential This chapter discusses some of the fixed points that are used to anchor ancient Egyptian chronologies. Digitised reading.

    2. General Discussion Question

      This session will discuss the outcome of the seminar tips and tricks wiki and develop ideas about presentation skills and techniques. During the second half of the session the class will participate in an exercise designed to explore the concept of 'texts as objects'. As preparation for this, please consider the following question:

       

      What are the different ways in which ancient texts might be dated?

       

    3. Other Reading 8 items
      1. Dating and Attributing Coins - A. Burnett

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading.

      2. Data for Dating - J. Collins 1988

        Chapter Recommended Collins proposes a useful model for understanding the relationship between coin production, circulation, hoarding, discovery and survival.

      3. Epigraphy as a Dating Method - J.F. Drinkard Jr 1988

        Chapter Optional Drinkard looks at how inscriptions may be dated from the style of the script, giving examples from Hebrew texts. His views should be compared to those of Schniedewind 2005, who points out some of the problems with this type of dating.

      4. Romano-British Coin Hoards: Their Numismatic, Archaeological and Historical Significance - A. S. Robertson

        Chapter Optional A single coin has limited value for dating; it may indicate a terminus post quem for a context, but it won't give you any idea of how long that coin was in circulation. Coin hoards, or groups of coins found together in situ, are much more useful, as you will get a range of dates to consider. Robertson looks at what we can learn from coin hoards, using material from Roman Britain. But of course, you can investigate similar research questions using datable coins from any culture or region where coinage is in use.

      5. Coins and Stratigraphy - S. Rotroff 1997

        Chapter Optional A good example of how coins can be used to address chronological issues.

      6. Problems in the Paleographic Dating of Inscriptions - W.M. Schniedewind 2005

        Chapter Recommended One method of dating ancient inscriptions is by studying the form of the script; see the article by Drinkard 1988 in this session. Schniedewind points out some of the problems with this approach.

      7. High Precision Dating and Archaeological Chronologies : Revisiting an Old Problem - S. Sherratt

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FW /963530.

      8. Radiocarbon Dating in Near-Eastern Contexts: Confusion and Quality Control - J. van der Plicht, H. Bruins 2001

        Article Optional Sometimes people get the impression that techniques like C14 dating can solve all our chronological problems. This article shows how things aren't as simple as all that. Also available at IoA: Periodicals R.

  13. General course reading 161 items
    This section contains optional readings; browse through it to find useful material for your course essays. If anyone is considering researching writing systems not covered directly in the course, such as Chinese or Mayan, please contact the course-coordinator for additional reading suggestions.
    1. I. Introductory Readings 12 items
      These readings are a good place to start; some cover the decipherment of different scripts; others explore broader issues of how we use and study ancient texts.
      1. The Keys of Egypt. The Race to Read the Hieroglyphs - L. Adkins, R. Adkins 2001

        Book Optional This book tells the story of the decipherment of hieroglyphs, in a very readable format.

      2. Chronology of the Ancient World - E. Bickerman 1980

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY 7th Floor (63) LFC Bic.

      3. Epigraphy and the Ancient Historian - J.P. Bodel 2001

        Chapter Optional This is the introductory chapter of a book about Greek and Roman inscriptions; the type of material encompassed, and how they can be used. It will be useful to anyone with a particular interest in Greek and Roman inscriptions (note that while we don't cover Roman material in the lectures, you could choose to use this material in your essay). Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) 5th Floor (63) LDP Epi.

      4. To Write or Not to Write - C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky

        Chapter Recommended Proof that writing is not an inevitable development of a complex society. Digitised reading. Also available at: SOAS FR /900282.

      5. Text-Aided Archaeology - B. J. Little

        Chapter Recommended Digitised reading available of the introductory chapter. The rest of the book presents a series of case study showing how texts and archaeology can work together (or in some cases, not).

      6. Only Fragments from the Past: The Role of Accident in our Knowledge of the Ancient Near East, - A. Millard 2005

        Chapter Recommended This article explores the importance of fortuitous discoveries for our understanding of the history of the Near East, and the probabilities of survival of ancient documents. Millard’s conclusion, which should apply for most cases in the Near East, is that in sites where there have been several phases of occupation, it is the last phases that will offer the largest amounts of remains and documents to the archaeologists and historians. Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC411.09 /937203.

      7. Archaeology and Text: Decipherment, Translation, and Interpretation - T. Palaima 2003

        Chapter Optional Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3759).

      8. Writing and script: a very short introduction - Andrew Robinson 2009

        Book Recommended As the title suggests, this is a good introductory text. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A302.2244/732322; SENATE HOUSE palaeography 4th floor, CC25.1 [Robinson].

      9. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East - J. Sasson 2000

        Book Recommended This two volume set (originally published in four volumes) provides summary articles on all sorts of aspects of Egypt and the Near East; it is useful in all sorts of ways, but for this course, you should start by exploring the section on 'Language, Writing and Literature'. If there's some aspect of past societies in this region you want to know more about, this is a good place to start looking. Also available at: SOAS L Ref QB930/825674.

      10. Handbook for Classical Research - D. M. Schaps 2010

        Book Optional With chapters on numismatics, epigraphy, papyrology, palaeography and translation, among others, this will interest those who want to explore writing in the Classical world of Greece and Rome.

      11. Written Documents as Excavated Artifacts and the Holistic Interpretation of the Mesopotamian Archaeological Record - R. L. Zettler

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available at SOAS: MAIN L QB930/734557.

    2. II. Cultural and Archaeological Background 11 items
      These readings will give you a better understanding of the archaeological and historical backgrounds to the cultures discussed in this course.
      1. Archaeological Introduction - G. Bonfante, L. Bonfante 2002

        Chapter Recommended This gives you a good introduction to the archaeological background for Etruscan language and writing. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WUT Bon.

      2. Biblical archaeology: a very short introduction - E. H. Cline 2009

        Book Optional Excavations in the Southern Levant have often been overshadowed by the biblical agendas of those working there; we discuss some of the tensions between the archaeological record, and the textual (biblical) record for the region in week 7 of the course. This is a good introduction to the subject, written by an excellent archaeologist.

      3. The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium - R. R. Holloway 1994

        Book Optional See especially Chapter 8: Osteria dell'Osa - if you remember from weeks 5 and 7 in the course, this is where the earliest alphabetic inscription in the Mediterranean has been found. Is it Greek, Etruscan or Latin? We don't know. But it definitely includes vowels, which is a first. Also available at Senate House: HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th floor (63) LSH Hol.

      4. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, 10,000-586 B.C.E - A. Mazar 1990

        Book Recommended Please read pp. 263-295. A textbook that will give you a good background for the archaeology of the Southern Levant over a range of periods. This should help you put a framework around some of the material discussed in class, such as the development of Proto-Canaanite script in the Middle and Late Bronze Age, and the archaeology of Israel and Judah in the Iron Age. While this is a good book, note that this was written back in 1990, and focuses on Israel/Palestine. For a more up to date overview that also covers the rest of the Levant, see the Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant (2014).

      5. The ancient Near East: a very short introduction - Amanda H. Podany 2014

        Book Recommended You are not going to learn everything you need to know about the Near East in this short book, but it is a good place to start if you know nothing about the region in antiquity.

      6. Early Mesopotamia : Society and Economy at the Dawn of History - J. N. Postgate 1994

        Book Recommended Postgate will give you a sound framework for the archaeology of Mesopotamia. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJA Pos; SOAS QD935 /635635.

      7. Ancient Egypt: a very short introduction - Ian Shaw 2004

        Book Optional

      8. The Etruscans: a very short introduction - C.J. Smith 2014

        Book Optional We meet the Etruscans and their writing system in week 5 of the course. This book is a good short introduction to their culture.

      9. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks) 2013 (Hardcover)

        Book Recommended This will give you a good background to the archaeology of the Levant (Syria, Israel, Jordan, Palestinian Authority) and Cyprus, beginning with the languages, history of research and chronology of the region. It then looks at links across the region, before embarking on a series of chapters outlining the archaeology of each area from the Neolithic down to the Persian period. The most up to date overview available at present. There is another copy at SOAS (Main Library FR /758182 LONG LOA).

      10. Ancient Egypt: A Social History - B.G. Trigger, B.J. Kemp, D. O'Connor, A.B. Lloyd 1983

        Book Optional Interested in Egyptian writing? This book will help you contextualise it within its broader social and economic context. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LME/Anc; SOAS Level F Mobiles QR932.01 /900782 and /695912.

      11. The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in North East Africa, 10,000-2650 BC - D. Wengrow 2006

        Book Recommended This provides a good background for the earlier periods of Egyptian archaeology (Predynastic, Protodynastic, Old Kingdom), and help you contextualise the material from Abydos U-j and objects such as the Narmer Palette. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63), LMA Wen; SOAS FRE /975237.

    3. III. Texts as Writing Systems 34 items
      The readings in this section focus on the origins of different writing systems, and how these systems work. They may prove useful for those answering essay question 1: 'Discuss the archaeological evidence for the emergence of writing in at least two different ancient societies. How does writing appear there and why? What problems or questions does this material raise?'.
      1. Handbook of Scripts and Alphabets - G. L. Campbell 1997

        Book Optional Does what it says on the tin. If you want to find out about a particular script or writing system, this book will help. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE STACK SERVICE [DEPOS - MxS] Ref.only 411 [Campbell]; SOAS A411 /720913.

      2. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems - F. Coulmas 1999

        Book Optional A good general place to get an introduction to individual scripts and writing systems. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE INFORMATION CENTRE South Block 4th Floor rapid reference 411 [Coulmas]; SOAS Ref A411.03 /725970 (1996 edition).

      3. The Origins of Chinese Writing: the Neolithic Evidence - P. Demattè 2010

        Article Optional We didn't discuss Chinese writing in the lectures, but this would be a useful starting place if you are thinking of using this material as a case study in your course essay (particularly question 1). Also available at IoA: Periodicals C.

      4. Greek Scripts: an illustrated introduction 2001

        Book Recommended This book has a series of chapters on different aspects of Greek writing, ranging in date from the Bronze Age into the Medieval periods; it includes many useful illustrations. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.2 [Easterling].

      5. A Study of Writing - I. J. Gelb 1963

        Book Recommended An influential volume. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Gelb]; SOAS A411 /317312.

      6. The Invention of Cuneiform: Writing in Sumer - J. J. Glassner 2003

        Book Optional Among other things, useful as a critique to Schmandt-Besserat's theories about token use and their link to early writing (see pages 63-83). Also available at: SOAS Main Library QEA411 /904984.

      7. The Writing Revolution: Cuneiform to the Internet - A.E. Gnanadesikan 2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Gnanadesikan].

      8. Canaanites Reading Hieroglyphs. Horus is Hathor? - The Invention of the Alphabet in Sinai - O. Goldwasser 2006

        Article Recommended This article is quite long, but has some very interesting points to make about how the Proto-Canaanite alphabet came about. Also available at IoA: Periodicals A.

      9. The Origins of the West Semitic Alphabet in Egyptian Scripts - G. J. Hamilton 2006

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QK411 /994180.

      10. Pictograms or pseudo script? : non-textual identity marks in practical use in ancient Egypt and elsewhere : proceedings of a conference in Leiden, 19-20 December 2006 2009

        Proceedings Optional Not all marks are writing. Find out why here.Also available at: SOAS Main library FRE/742766.

      11. The Origin of Writing - R. Harris 1986

        Book Recommended A good critique of theories to do with the origins of writing systems. Well worth a read if you are planning on doing the first essay question. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A411 /524770; SENATE HOUSE LINGUISTICS 5th Floor (3) WCC Har, and STACK service WCC Har.

      12. Writing in Anatolia: Imported and Indigenous Systems - D. Hawkins 1986

        Article Optional Anatolia (modern Turkey) is home to scripts such as Hittite Hieroglyphs and cuneiform. Find out how these are mapped out onto a range of languages. Also available at IoA: Periodicals W.

      13. Reading the past: ancient writing from cuneiform to the alphabet - J. T. Hooker 1996

        Book Suggested for student purchase This book has a series of chapters on different writing systems, including Linear B, Egyptian hieroglyphs, the early alphabet, Greek, and Etruscan. Also available at Senate House library: Palaeography North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Hooker], and SOAS A411.09/607197. You'll find the chapters in the book also published as individual monographs under the names of their respective authors, in a British Museum series called 'Reading the Past'.

      14. Attic script: a survey - Henry R. Immerwahr c1990

        Book Recommended An interesting collection of papers about early writing in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Mesopotamia and Scandinavia. It focuses on the origins of writing, and the pace and complexity of script development. Also available at SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North block ground floor small hall CC25.1 [Houston]; SOAS A411.09/951246.

      15. The Shape of Script: How and Why Writing Systems Change - S.D. Houston 2012

        Book Recommended This contains a range of articles about how scripts develop over the course of their lives, with discussions of cuneiform (VELDHUIS), Egyptian hieroglyphs (BAINES), Roman script and punctuation (BODEL), as well as Chinese, Japanese, and Mayan writing systems.

      16. Attic Script: A Survey - H. R. Immerwahr 1990

        Book Optional

      17. Writing: the Story of Alphabets and Scripts - G. Jean 2000

        Book Optional Also available at SENATE HOUSE Palaeography North block ground floor small hall CC25.2 [Jean].

      18. Hieroglyphic Writing during the Fourth Millennium BC - J. Kahl 2001

        Article Optional Also available at IoA Periodicals A

      19. The Use of Written Records - W. P. Lehmann

        Chapter Optional Digitised readings. Also available at SENATE HOUSE LINGUISTICS South Block 6th floor 93) WAH Leh; SOAS A417.7/654041.

      20. The Chinese Writing System - O. Moore 2000

        Chapter Optional One of the monographs in the British Museum's 'Reading the Past' Series (this did not appear as a chapter in Hooker's book of the same title, but was written subsequently). A good introduction to Chinese writing systems, and useful for anyone thinking of doing a case study on this for their course essay. Also available at SOAS CC495.111/927194

      21. Writing Systems and Identity - A. Payne 2007

        Chapter Optional This article looks at scribal activity in Hittite Anatolia - the scribes who write on clay, and those who write on wood. It looks at writing tools, writing surfaces (including the problem of perishable materials), and at the origins of the different scripts used in the region. Also available at: SOAS MAIN L QF939.2 /984614.

      22. Papyrus - R. Parkinson, S. Quirke 1995

        Book Optional All you need to know about this particular writing material, which was used for a lot of Egyptian texts. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC21 [Parkinson].

      23. Writing - Barry B. Powell 26/01/2012

        Book Optional A contribution to the debate about the origins of the Greek alphabet, and the possible role of Homeric myth in the process, with exploration of the tension between orality and literacy, and some discussions of developments elsewhere in the Near East. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE CLASSICS South Block 6th Floor (3) XFA Pow.

      24. Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization - B. B. Powell 2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY 4th Floor CC24.1 [Powell].

      25. The Relation between Format and Content in Neo-Assyrian texts - K. Radner 1995

        Chapter Recommended Also available at: SOAS MAIN QEJ892.1 /735160.

      26. How Writing Came About - D. Schmandt-Besserat 1996

        Book Optional Schmandt-Besserat is known for supporting the theory that token use led directly to the development of Mesopotamian writing systems. Her work has been critiqued by a number of scholars, including Michaeolowski 1993, Glassner 2003 and Shendge 1983. Also available at: SOAS FR/735004.

      27. The Origins of Writing 1989

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS A411.09 /657348; SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.1 [Senner].

      28. The Use of Seals and the Invention of Writing - M. J. Shendge 1983

        Article Optional This rather long article provides a critique of Schmandt-Besserat’s interpretation of tokens and gives a good summary of the development of ideas about the use of tokens and bullae for accounting. Watch out, though, as the author keeps talking about 'bulles', when the correct plural of the word is 'bullae'.

      29. Greek Papyri: An Introduction - E.G. Turner 1968

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC21 [Turner].

      30. Cuneiform - C. B. F. Walker 1987

        Book Recommended Also available at: SOAS QE411 /546888 and /961233. Note that you will also find this monograph published as a chapter in HOOKER, J.T. 1990. Reading the Past. Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet.

      31. Hieroglyphs: a very short introduction - P. Wilson 2004

        Book Optional Does what it says on the tin.

      32. Visible Language: Inventions of Writing in the Ancient Middle East and Beyond - C. Woods, G. Emberling, E. Teeter, University of Chicago 2010

        Book Optional This is a catalogue of an exhibition that dealt with early writing systems in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some lovely images, unusual material, and extremely useful discussions to dip into. The whole book is available to download for free. Also available at: SOAS MAIN LQE411/737187.

      33. Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History - M. Van de Mieroop 1999

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS QE935 /783889 and /783888.

    4. IV. Texts as Social, Cultural and Political Tools 32 items
      This section is all about how writing is used by different ancient societies. It might be useful for those answering essay 2.
      1. Visual and Written Culture in Ancient Egypt - J. Baines 2007

        Book Optional

      2. The Disappearance of Writing Systems: Perspectives on Literacy and Communication - J. Baines, J. Bennet, S. D. Houston 2008

        Book Optional In week 3 of the course we discussed why writing systems first develop, a theme that is also explored in one of the course essays. However equally interesting is the question of why they stop being used - which forms the focus of this volume, which explores the decline of writing systems across the Mediterranean, Near East, Arabia and New World. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A411.09.

      3. Reconciling Two Maps: Archaeological Evidence for the Kingdoms of David and Solomon - J.A. Blakeley 2002

        Article Optional One of the big debates in the archaeology of early Israel, which arose during the 1990s - is whether the account given in the Old Testament of the kingdoms of David and Solomon is accurate? Was there ever a united monarchy, as such? Blakely uses the distribution of a certain type of architecture to try and reconcile the problematic textual sources with archaeological evidence. Available at IoA Periodicals B.

      4. Etruscan Inscriptions and Etruscan Religion - L. Bonfante 2006

        Chapter Optional Additional copies in Senate House HISTORY (SHL) 5th Floor (63) LSE Rel.

      5. Numismatics (Minting and Monetary Systems/Coinage) in the Levant - K. Butcher

        Chapter Optional Not all ancient coins bear inscriptions (or legends, as they are known), but those that do can be particularly useful for studying how the state wished to portray itself, or its leaders, as well as often providing useful dates. Text and image may be combined on coins, providing another useful dimension for study; as does the composition of the coin, and its distribution patterns, which can inform about the ancient economy and administration. This paper, part of a general handbook, will help you understand this type of text in its Levantine context.

      6. Hieratic Inscriptions from the Tomb of Tutʻankhamūn - J. Černý 1965

        Book Optional This is one of the primary publications of the material from Tutankhamen's tomb - browse through it to get an idea of the types of hieratic inscriptions found, and the objects they appear on. You'll find some of the wine jar inscriptions we discuss in week 6 of the course here.

      7. Sumerian Extract Tablets and Scribal Education - P. Delnero 2010

        Article Optional A study of the physical characteristics and formal features of scribal tablets, to gain insights into how scribes were trained. So useful both for understanding scribal training in Mesopotamia, and also in the materiality of texts and what we can learn from them. Also available at: IoA Periodicals C.

      8. The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: an Alternative View - Israel Finkelstein 01/1996

        Article Optional Finkelstein is one of the most controversial figures in the archaeology of Iron Age Israel. You need to keep in mind when his various works have been written, as he has changed his mind on a number of issues over time. This paper looks at the question of whether the biblical account of the United Monarchy of Solomon is accurate, or not. Also available at: IoA Periodicals L.

      9. Ancient History: Evidence and Models - M. I. Finley 2008

        Book Optional Especially Chapter 2: 'The Ancient Historian and his Sources'. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LO2 Fin.

      10. From Oral Practice to Written Record in Ramesside Deir El-Medina - B. L. L. Haring 2003

        Article Optional Also available at IoA: Periodicals J.

      11. Levels of Greek and Roman Literacy - W.V. Harris 1989

        Chapter Optional This was part of an influential book written by Harris on Greek and Roman literacy; consider the criteria Harris applies to measure literacy, and whether these are effective. Would they work in other societies? The book was critiqued by Cornell 1991. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25 [Harris].

      12. Writing Religion. Inscribed Texts, Ritual Authority, and the Religious Discourse of the Polis - A. Henrichs 2003

        Chapter Optional This article looks at the range of texts produced in the practice of ancient Greek religion.

      13. Idea into Image: Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought - E. Hornung, E. Bredeck 1992

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PHILOSOPHY North Block 2nd Floor (66) AAD Hor.

      14. Sign, Symbol and Script: An Account of Man's Efforts to Write - H. Jensen, G. Unwin 1970

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.2 [Jensen].

      15. Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome - W.A. Johnston, H.N. Parker 2009

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE PALAEOGRAPHY North Block Ground Floor Small Hall CC25.7 [Johnson].

      16. Introduction: Literacy and Social Complexity - M. T. Larsen 1995

        Chapter Optional

      17. Literacy and Gender - B. Lion 2011

        Chapter Recommended Very useful if you are interested in the issue of who had access to writing; this deals with the question of women authors, scribes and readers of cuneiform in the Near East.

      18. Script Obsolescence in Ancient Italy: From Pre-Roman to Roman Writing - K. Lomas 2008

        Chapter Optional An examination of how and why a range of Italian scripts and languages became obsolete. Also available at: SOAS Main Library A411.09.

      19. Literacy and the State in the Ancient Mediterranean - K. Lomas, R. Whitehouse, J. Wilkins 2007

        Book Optional

      20. Iconoclasm and Text Destruction in the Ancient Near East and Beyond | The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 2012

        Book Optional These papers were originally presented at a conference, and examine why different cultures mutilate texts and images. Case studies are drawn from Mesopotamia, Syria, Israel and Egypt. The whole book is available for free download from the Oriental Institute of Chicago.

      21. The Knowledge of Writing in Late Bronze Age Palestine - A. Millard 1999

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS QB930 /806902.

      22. Archaic Bookkeeping: Early Writing and Techniques of the Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East - H.J. Nissen, P. Damerow, R.K. Englund, P. Larsen 1993

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LDJ Nis; SOAS QEA411 /693469.

      23. The Graffiti of Pharaonic Egypt: Scope and Roles of Informal Writings (c. 3100-332 B.C.) - A. J. Peden 2001

        Book Optional This book explores Egyptian and Nubian hieroglyphic and hieratic graffiti - an informal class of text that casts light on Egyptian society and those who make use of writing.

      24. The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture - K. Radner, E. Robson 2011

        Book Recommended Where to start? This book is full of good stuff. If you are doing anything to do with cuneiform texts, have a look. There's a useful chapter by VELDHUIS on cuneiform literacy, LION on women and literacy, TAYLOR on material aspects of cuneiform texts, among others. Also available at: SOAS main library QC930 /739763.

      25. Legal and archaeological territories of the second millennium BC in northern Mesopotamia - Lauren Ristvet 09/2008

        Article Optional The author uses cuneiform documents from Tell Leilan in Syria to show how settlements relate to different intersecting authorities; the textual evidence makes us rethink how we might interpret the settlement patterns we discover in archaeological survey. Also available at: IoA Periodicals A.

      26. Literacy, Numeracy and the State in Early Mesopotamia - E. Robson 2007

        Chapter Optional

      27. Bisotun III. Darius's Inscriptions – Encyclopaedia Iranica - R. Schmitt 1989

        Webpage Optional Also known as the Behistun inscription, this important trilingual inscription is discussed several times during the course.

      28. Phrasikleia: An Anthropology of Reading in Ancient Greece - J. Svenbro, J. Lloyd 1993

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE CLASSICS South Block 6th Floor (3) XEH Sve.

      29. Egypt, Ancient, XVI, 11 'Maps and Plans' - J. Tait 1996

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ART South Block 4th Floor Mx South Gallery V11 Dic.

      30. Literate Culture and Tenth-century Canaan: The Tel Zayit Abecedary in Context - R.E. Tappy, P.K. McCarter 2008

        Book Optional

      31. Graffiti and the Epigraphic Habit. Creating Communities and Writing Alternate Histories in Classical Attica - C. Taylor 2011

        Chapter Optional This paper examines the significance and purpose of erotic rock-cut graffiti in Attica.

    5. V. The Visual, Physical and Temporal Setting of Texts 18 items
      These readings focus on the context of ancient writing; how it is physically presented (visual and material aspects), and in what sort of cultural settings (architecture and landscape). They may be useful to those answering essay questions 2 and 3.
      1. Building in Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry - D. Arnold 1991

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main library FRE.L/713479.

      2. Temples of the Last Pharaohs - D. Arnold 1999

        Book Optional

      3. The Disjunction of Text and Image in Egyptian Art - B. M. Bryan 1996

        Chapter Recommended Available in the IOA Teaching Collection (INST ARCH 3760).

      4. Mesopotamian Historical Consciousness and the Production of Monumental Art in the Third Millennium B.C. - J. S. Cooper 1990

        Chapter Optional Also available at: SOAS FR/632117.

      5. Art and Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum - J. Curtis, J. Reade, D. Collon 1995

        Book Recommended An excellent exhibition catalogue of Neo-Assyrian material in the British Museum, this book includes many of the reliefs shown in this course. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ART FOLIO (f) South Block 4th Floor Mx South V58ed BRI; SOAS Main Library FRM.L/702272.

      6. The Canonical Tradition in Ancient Egyptian Art - W. Davis 1989

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Short Loan Collection FRE/618462.

      7. The Orientation of Hieroglyphs: Part 1: Reversals - H.G. Fischer 1977

        Book Optional This is a useful discussion of some of the visual aspects of hieroglyphs and how they are organised.

      8. L'écriture et l'art de l'Égypte ancienne: quartre leçons sur la paléographie et l'épigraphie pharaoniques - H.G. Fischer 1986

        Book Optional Don't be put off by the fact this book is in French; its full of useful images. And of course, if you read French, all the better!

      9. The Representation and Identification of Cities on Assyrian Reliefs - R. Jacoby 1991

        Article Optional Also available at: IoA Periodicals I.

      10. Space, Sound, and Light: Toward a Sensory Experience of Ancient Monumental Architecture - Augusta McMahon 2013

        Article Optional This article provides a phenomenological analysis of the public architecture at the Assyrian city of Khorsabad, to see how people used and perceived the space. It doesn't deal with texts directly, but is an interesting application of a particular methodology, that you can apply yourself to the material in this course, to help you understand how things like palace reliefs and texts might have worked within architectural spaces to convey ideological messages. Digitised reading available.

      11. The Bible in the British Museum: Interpreting the Evidence - T.C. Mitchell, British Museum 1988

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main Library A220.93 /721980.

      12. Art and Inscriptions in the Ancient World - Z. Newby, R.E. Leader-Newby 2007

        Book Optional

      13. Text in Context: Eloquent Monuments and the Byzantine Beholder - A. Papalexandrou 2001

        Article Optional This is later than most of the material discussed in the course, but nonetheless useful for its methodology and approach to its data.

      14. Archives and Libraries in the Ancient Near East, 1500-300 B.C - O. Pedersén 1998

        Book Optional A substantial survey of text assemblages in the Near East; its not something you probably want to read cover to cover, but you may find it useful to dip into, particularly if addressing the issue of the value of archaeological context, and finding material in situ and in association with other objects. Also available at: SOAS QB027 /768461 and /769231.

      15. Re-Materialising Script and Image - K. E. Piquette

        Chapter Recommended A detailed study of the materiality of Late Predynastic/Early Dynastic tags, including those from Abydos Tomb U-j, which formed the basis of the authors doctoral dissertation. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 5th Floor and 4th Gallery (63) LM2 Cur.

      16. Text and Figure in Ancient Mesopotamia: Match and Mismatch - J. N. Postgate 1994

        Chapter Optional Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE ARCHAEOLOGY South Block 7th Floor (63) LAD Anc.

      17. Proportion and Style in Ancient Egyptian Art - G. Robins, A.S. Fowler 1994

        Book Optional Also available at: SOAS Main Library FRE.L/717006.

      18. Brick Architecture in Ancient Egypt - A.J. Spencer 1979

        Book Optional

    6. VI. The Materiality of Texts ('Text as Object') 13 items
      This section includes material that is helpful for understanding theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of ancient texts, including the 'text as object' idea discussed throughout the course. The readings in this section might be useful for those answering essay questions 2 ('Compare and contrast the archaeological evidence for official and personal uses of writing in the ancient world. How might the purpose of a text influence its physical form and setting?') and 3 ('How can a more holistic approach to texts, considering their archaeological setting, materiality and written content help us gain a better understanding of past societies?').
      1. Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae - E. Arie, Yuval Goren, I. Samet 2011

        Chapter Recommended This is a really useful article that examines Judean clay bullae (seal impressions) of the Iron Age, from all sorts of physical perspectives, answering questions such as where did they get the clay that was used to make them, and how were they made and physically used to seal documents. A copy is also available at SOAS (Main library FW/738808).

      2. Scarab - K.M. Cooney 2008

        Chapter Optional The scarab is an iconic Egyptian object that frequently, though not always, incorporates Egyptian hieroglyphic text into its design. This encyclopaedia entry will help you contextualise this type of object, and understand how it functioned. The scarab was also adopted by others, such as the Canaanite culture of the Southern Levant, where they were frequently used as funerary amulets. There's some discussion of this in Sparks 2013 ('re-writing the script', also on the reading list).

      3. Agency in ancient writing - Englehardt, J. 2012

        Book Optional This book is an attempt to apply agency theory to the study of ancient texts. It contains a series of articles by different authors, examining writing systems in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete, Greece, China and Mesoamerica, exploring material as archaeological objects as well as from a historical perspective.

      4. Archaism - J. Kahl 2010

        Chapter Optional This discusses the phenomenon of 'archaisim' in ancient Egypt, where texts and other objects are deliberately rendered in an old fashioned style to reference the remote past. With texts, it can mean deliberately using an archaic style of script, which can have an impact on the success of those trying to date texts purely on the basis of script style.

      5. Re-Materialising Script and Image - K. E. Piquette

        Chapter Recommended A detailed study of the materiality of Late Predynastic/Early Dynastic tags, including those from Abydos Tomb U-j, which formed the basis of the authors doctoral dissertation. Digitised reading. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 5th Floor and 4th Gallery (63) LM2 Cur.

      6. “It Is Written”?: Making, remaking and unmaking early ‘writing’ in the lower Nile Valley - Kathryn E. Piquette

        Chapter Optional The author explores the materiality of wood, bone and ivory tags from Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt, as a clue to better understanding scribal practice. This is useful from a methodological perspective ('Text as Object'), but also for understanding early Egyptian writing. Similar material was covered in her earlier 2008 article (also on this list).

      7. Scribal Practice and an Early Dynastic Stone Vessel Inscription: Material and Aesthetic Implications - K.E. Piquette 2014

        Chapter Recommended This article presents a case study exploring the material aspects of an Egyptian 1st Dynasty inscribed stone vessel fragment from the World Museum Liverpool.

      8. Writing as Material Practice: Substance, Surface and Medium - K.E. Piquette, R.D. Whitehouse 2013

        Book Recommended A collection of papers from a UCL conference on the materiality of writing, covering material from Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Levant, Greece, Italy, Mesoamerica and Europe. INST ARCH GC PIQ. The entire book can be downloaded using this link: http://www.ubiquitypress.com/files/009-writingasmaterialpractice.pdf

      9. Inscribed Instrumentum and the Ancient Economy - G. Pucci 2001

        Chapter Optional This chapter looks at Greek and Roman objects with inscriptions: pottery, bricks, glassware. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) 5th Floor (63) LDP Epi.

      10. Re-writing the Script: Decoding the Textual Experience in the Bronze Age Levant (c.2000-150 B.C.) - R.T. Sparks 2013

        Chapter Recommended This looks at the Bronze Age textual evidence from the Levant, from the point of view of the multiplicity of scripts and languages used, and the significance of their contexts of use on who their audiences might be. It shows how looking at objects from a material perspective can bring new insights on the way texts functioned in antiquity. INST ARCH GC PIQ. You can also download the whole book that this article is in at: http://www.ubiquitypress.com/files/009-writingasmaterialpractice.pdf

      11. The Materiality of Graffiti. Socialising a Lekythos in Pherai - K. Volioti

        Chapter  A case study of a single object (a type of Greek vase, called a lekythos), with an inscription on its base, using the material aspects of the vessel to explore how it functioned, and the role of the text that was added to it.

      12. Veneti & Etruscans: Issues of Language, Literacy and Learning - R. Whitehouse, J. Wilkins 2006

        Chapter Optional An interesting paper that examines the materiality of writing in Northeastern Italy, the area of the ancient Veneti. It discusses the uses of Venetic writing and explores theories about the relationship between the Etruscan and Venetic scripts.

      13. The Dynamics of Change in the Computer Imaging of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Ancient Inscriptions - B. Zuckerman 2010

        Chapter Optional An updated version of an article that appeared in M.L. Gorsman (ed.), Rediscovering the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Assessment of Old and New Approaches and Methods, 69-88. This one is all-singing and dancing, with interactive images; its about how technology can be applied to the study of texts. Here, working closely with the material the text is written on, and considering precise details of letter shape and style, researchers are able to come up with more accurate readings and reconstructions of lacunae. It should give you an idea also of just how subjective the process of 'reading' ancient texts can be.

    7. VII. Ethical Concerns 18 items
      The material in this section deals with some of the issues relating to the use of unprovenanced and/or illicitly excavated texts for academic research. This section is likely to be useful to those answering essay question 4 'Discuss the potential ethical issues surrounding the study and use of ancient texts. How might these be addressed?'.
      1. Authenticity examination of the inscription on the ossuary attributed to James, brother of Jesus - Avner Ayalon, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Yuval Goren 2004-8

        Article Optional This ossuary caused a great deal of attention in the media when its discovery was first announced. The ossuary itself is unremarkable; what was of interest was the inscription it carried. It was sent to Canada for exhibition, and later went on to be one of the star players in a long and drawn out trial of the owner (and alleged forger) of the inscription. This article questions the authenticity of the inscription. Digitised reading available.

      2. The Inscribed Pomegranate from the "House of the Lord" - N. Avigad 1990

        Article Optional This was written before the ivory pomegranate was declared a fake, so it gives you a good idea of the ways in which researchers initially tried to contextualise and make sense of this object.

      3. ‘Consensual Relations? Academic Involvement in the Ilegal Trade in Ancient Manuscripts' - N. Brodie 2009

        Chapter Optional An evaluation of the role of academia in supporting illicit activity. Digitised reading available.

      4. The Social and Political Consequences of Devotion to Biblical Artifacts - N. Brodie, M.M. Kersel 2012

        Chapter Optional A more general overview of the impact of unprovenanced and forged material flooding the antiquities market in Israel and elsewhere. Digitised reading available.

      5. WikiLeaks, Texts, and Archaeology: The Case of the Schøyen Incantation Bowls - N.J. Brodie, M.M. Kersel 2014

        Chapter Optional This paper looks at what happens when material in private collections, whose provenance may be questionable, is researched academically. In the case of this series of incantation bowls from Iraq, there were both legal and financial consequences for UCL in getting involved.

      6. Publishing Undocumented Texts: Editorial Perspectives - J.F. Cherry 2014

        Chapter Optional Archaeologists have responsibilities when it comes to how we publish the past. One of the questions we have to consider is whether the source of our data is ethically appropriate. John Cherry looks at the publication policies of a number of professional journals, to see how they are dealing with the problem of illicit and/or undocumented texts.

      7. Notes on the Forged Plaque Recording Repairs to the Temple - F.M. Cross 2003

        Article Optional This article gives a translation of the 'Jehoash Inscription' which had appeared on the antiquities market; the author concludes that the inscription is a modern forgery. See also the article by Eph'al in the same volume. Digitised reading available.

      8. The Trade in Fresh Supplies of Ancient Coins: Scale, Organization, and Politics - N.T. Elkins 2012

        Chapter Optional Coins are often, although not always, inscribed with some sort of text; and this is one type of object that is often sold by dealers and metal detectorists without any concern for their archaeological context. This has had a huge impact on how numismatists study the material - have a look at the major coin reference works to get an idea of the scale of the problem. Here the problem may not be so much one of datasets contaminated by fakes (with so many real coins available, this is less of an issue), as one of loss of valuable knowledge that might help us understand their significance and answer all sorts of interesting research questions.

      9. The 'Jehoash Inscription': A Forgery - I. Eph'al 2003

        Article Optional The Jehoash inscription is another text that seemed to be of great historical importance when it first appeared on the antiquities market. However doubts soon arose about its authenticity, as this article addresses. See also the article, and translation by Cross in the same volume, which draws similar conclusions. Digitised reading available.

      10. Do Restrictions on Publication of Undocumented Texts Promote Legitimacy? - P. Gerstenblith 2014

        Chapter Optional The archaeological community has for some time been looking at ways of combating the problem of research involving illicit material. But do these methods work?

      11. The Material and Intellectual Consequences of Acquiring the Sarpedon Krater - D. Gill 2012

        Chapter Optional The 'Sarpedon krater' is also known as the 'Euphronios krater', after the painter who signed his name on the vase. It also has an Attic inscription 'Leagros is handsome' accompanying a scene depicting Athenian youths on the vessel reverse; the obverse depicts a death scene from the Trojan war. This object became the centre of an ownership dispute between the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Italian authorities, but was finally repatriated to Italy in 2006.

      12. Authenticity Examination of the Jehoash Inscription - Y. Goren, A. Ayalon, M. Bar-Matthews, B. Schilman 2004

        Article Optional The authors examined the patina over the inscription, and concluded that the inscription had been added in modern times. Digitised reading available.

      13. Archaeometric analysis of the “Jehoash Inscription” tablet - S. Ilani, A. Rosenfeld, H.R. Feldman, W.E. Krumbein 11/2008

        Article Optional Just to show scientists can never agree on anything, this archaeometric study of the Jehoash inscription concluded (contra Goren and co.) that the patina was genuine, not faked.

      14. A Re-examination of the Inscribed Pomegranate: A Rejoinder - A. Lemaire 2006

        Article  A response to Goren et al. 2005, by an epigraphist who is convinced this object is genuine. Digitised reading available. Also available at IoA: PERS I and SOAS Per 5 74853.

      15. The Lie Became Great: The Forgery of Ancient Near Eastern Cultures - O.W. Muscarella 2000

        Book Optional Muscarella was one of the first to blow the whistle on the disastrous impact of including unprovenanced Near Eastern objects in academic research and museum collections. This book introduces the problem, and discusses numerous objects that he believes are fakes. You may find it useful to dip into for case studies for essay no. 4.

      16. Forging History: From Antiquity to the Modern Period - C.A. Rollston 2014

        Chapter Optional Rollston has written extensively about the problem of forged material, particularly relating to Iron Age Israel; some of his work was also listed under the reading for week 2. This gives a somewhat wider perspective on the issues.

      17. Policy regarding the illicit trade in antiquities - UCL Institute of Archaeology 2008

        Article Optional You will find numerous organisations, such as the IoA, have developed policies like this for dealing with some of the problems around our sources of archaeological data.

      18. Forum: Fakes, Forgeries, and Biblical Scholarship - A.G. Vaughn, C.A. Rollston 2006

        Article Optional This article reviews a number of questionable objects with texts that have appeared on the antiquities market in Israel, including the James Ossuary, various ostraka, and the Jehoash tablet. It was written before the long trial of Oded Golan had reached its verdict. Available online.

    8. VIII. Source Material: Texts in Translation 18 items
      1. The Etruscan Language - G. Bonfante, L. Bonfante 2002

        Book Recommended This has some general introductory material to the Etruscans and their language. But section III is where you will find useful translations of a range of Etruscan texts (pp 132-185). It will give you a good idea of the diversity of available material, and includes some texts shown in the lecture for week 5. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE LANGUAGE/LITERATURE South Block 6th Floor (3) WUT Bon.

      2. Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East: The Royal Correspondence of the late Bronze Age - T. Bryce 2003

        Book Optional A good introduction to this particular genre - dip into it to get a flavour for how the high and mighty dealt with their business. Also available at: SOAS QC890 /915902.

      3. The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation - M.W. Chavalas 2006

        Book Recommended This has a range of useful translations of all sorts of genres, with introductions that clearly explain and contextualise the material. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Anc; SOAS QC930 /964774 and /995338.

      4. Women in the Ancient Near East: A Sourcebook - M.W. Chavalas 2014

        Book Optional A collection of primary sources relating to the role of women in the Near East, newly translated and with commentaries. Useful if studying gender issues, and female literacy. Also available at SOAS (Main Library QB305.4 / 757155).

      5. The Raging Torrent: Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel - M. Cogan 2008

        Book Recommended A selection of texts for those with a particular interest in Iron Age Israel and Judah, from the perspective of their enemies and conquerors; with some nice recent and easy to read translations. Also available at: SOAS QED956.9401 /725603.

      6. Bound for Exile: Israelites and Judeans under Imperial Yoke. Documents from Assyria and Babylonia - M. Cogan 2013

        Book Optional In a similar vein to 'The Raging Torrent'. SOAS Main Library QJ956.9401/501955; MAIN ANCIENT HISTORY JH 12 COH.

      7. Biographical Texts from Ramessid Egypt - E. Frood 2007

        Book Optional See especially chapter VI: Texts from Deir el-Medineh, p. 219 on.

      8. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World - J.G. Gager 1992

        Book Optional Texts can be used to do some very nasty things. This book looks at some of their magical applications. Also available at: SOAS Main Library QC133.44 /694516.

      9. Letters from the Hittite Kingdom - H.A. Hoffner, G.M. Beckman 2009

        Book Optional The Hittites were a culture that emerged from Anatolia (modern Turkey); we don't deal with them much in the course, but they were a major political force in the Near East during the Late Bronze Age. Here's translations of some of their correspondence, along with introductory essays and some general overview of the genre. It includes material from the royal family, as well as officials. Also available at: SOAS QGC939.3 /730679.

      10. Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Book Recommended A copy of the first edition is also available at (but not the preferred version): EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC; SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.108 /906668.

      11. Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. Volume II: The New Kingdom - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Book Recommended A copy of the first edition is also available at (but not the preferred version): EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC; SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.108 /906668.

      12. Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. Volume III: the Late Period - M. Lichtheim 2006

        Book Recommended A copy of the first edition is also available at (but not the preferred version): EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC; SOAS Level F Mobiles QSA893.108 /906668.

      13. Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions - A. Payne, H.C. Melchert 2012

        Book Optional We don't specifically cover any Hittite Hieroglyphs on the course, but if you are interested in them, this is the book for you. Also available at SOAS Main Library QGF418 /742902.

      14. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament - J.B. Pritchard 1969

        Book Optional This book is somewhat dated now - see Coogan and Chavalas for more recent translations of some of the texts found here. But it will include texts that you won't find elsewhere - and there is a companion volume of images that is extremely useful. The third, revised edition is the preferred version. Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LJ7 Pri; SOAS Main Library L QC890 /330793 and L Ref QC890 /330789.

      15. Greek Historical Inscriptions: 404-323 BC - P.J. Rhodes, R. Osborne 2003

        Book Optional Also available at: SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) South Block 7th Floor (63) LDP Gre.

      16. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry - W.K. Simpson, R.K. Ritner 2003

        Book Recommended The book collects translations and commentaries on a number of important Egyptian texts, including the Tale of Wenamun and the Victory stela of Merenptah (aka the Israel Stele), which we explore in weeks 6 and 7. Please use the third edition, as this has the most accurate translations.

      17. Zikh Rasna: A Manual of the Etruscan Language and Inscriptions - R. Wallace 2008

        Book Optional A good source of Etruscan inscriptions in translation; some of the introductory material is also useful, although you will find this very much focused on aspects of language.

      18. Letters from Ancient Egypt - E.F. Wente, Edmund S. Meltzer 1990

        Book Optional A copy is also available at SENATE HOUSE HISTORY (SHL) 5th Floor (63) LM8 Let; digitised reading available.

    9. IX. Online object databases 5 items
      1. British Museum - collection database search

        Website Recommended A useful resource for a range of ancient texts, many of which have good quality photographs attached. You will also find the British Museum website has various articles about ancient writing systems and the different cultures you will encounter in this course.

      2. IoA collections database

        Website Optional This is a searchable database of the material in the Institute of Archaeology's Collections at UCL. You can use it to find out more about objects on display in the Leventis Gallery, on the ground floor of the Institute, or seen in your object handling classes. Only some items have associated images.

      3. Penn Museum - Online Collections Home

        Webpage Recommended University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology's online database.

      4. The Petrie Museum database

        Website Recommended Objects in the collections of the Petrie Museum of Egyptology at UCL. Almost all objects have images provided, but the amount of information provided can be limited.

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