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  1. Lecture 1. History of Palaeoanthropology (29 Sept) – Christopher Dean 8 items
    1. Highly Recommended Reading; 3 items
      1. Debating humankind's place in nature, 1860-2000: the nature of paleoanthropology - Delisle, Richard G. c2007

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 DEL; Issue Desk DEL 4)

      2. Missing links: the hunt for earliest man - Reader, John 1981

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 REA)

    2. Theories of human evolution: a century of debate, 1844-1944 - Bowler, Peter J. 1987, c1986

      Book  (Anthrop: B 30 BOW; History of Science: RG 5 BOW)

    3. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex - Darwin, Charles, Oldham, Charles, Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club 1888

      Book  (For reprints see: History of Science: RG 4 DAR)

    4. The antiquity of man - Keith, Arthur 1925

      Book  (Order from Library Stores)

    5. The fossil evidence for human evolution: an introduction to the study of paleoanthropology - Clark, Wilfrid E. Le Gros, Campbell, Bernard Grant 1978

      Book  (Arch: BB 1 CLA; Anthrop: B 45 CLA)

    6. Bones of contention: controversies in the search for human origins - Lewin, Roger c1987

      Book  later editions also available. (Arch: BB 1 LEW)

  2. 2. History of Palaeolithic Archaeology (Fri 10 Oct. Anthro. Room 128) – Matt Pope 7 items
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 2 items
      1. Bones of contention: controversies in the search for human origins - Lewin, Roger c1987

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 LEW)

    2. The establishment of human antiquity - Grayson, Donald K. 1983

      Book  (Arch: AG GRA; or order from Library Stores)

    3. Historical Overview of Paleoanthropological Research - Henke W. 2007

      Chapter  pp. 1-56. (Online book – see library catalogue)

    4. The neandertals: changing the image of mankind - Trinkhaus, Erik, Shipman, Pat 1994

      Book  (Arch: Issue Desk TRI; Anthrop: B 34 TRI) E-book also available.

    5. The wisdom of the bones: in search of human origins - Walker, Alan, Shipman, Pat 1996

      Book  (Arch: BB 1 WAL)

  3. Lecture 3. Primate Evolution and Behaviour (13 Oct) – Christophe Soligo 8 items
    Research on non-human primates forms an integral part of palaeoanthropological research due to thecomparative insights non-human primates provide into human evolution. Tool use, hunting and therecent discovery and descriptions of local cultural traditions in a range of non-human primate speciesare some of the most obvious behaviours exhibited by extant primates with a direct relevance tohuman evolution. Similarly, the fossil record of non-human primates is of foremost importance in that itprovides insights into the physical and temporal framework within which the earliest phases of humanevolution took place. This session will give students an overview of the latest developments in thefields of palaeoprimatology and comparative primate behaviour.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. Primate Evolution and the Environment - Christoph Soligo 2007

        Article 

      2. Primate behavioral ecology - Strier, Karen B. c2007

        Book  (Arch: BB 3 STR; Anthrop: B 24 STR)

    2. Primate adaptation and evolution - Fleagle, John G. c1998

      Book  2013 edition also available. (Anthrop: B 34 FLE)

    3. The primate fossil record - Hartwig, Walter Carl 2002

      Book  (Anthrop: B 40 HAR)

    4. Primate origins and evolution: a phylogenetic reconstruction - Martin, R. D., Martin, Anne-Elise c1990

      Book  (Anthrop: B 34 MAR)

    5. Primate communities: Past, present, and possible future - Kaye E. Reed, Laura R. Bidner 2004

      Article 

    6. Chimpanzee cultures - Wrangham, Richard W., Chicago Academy of Sciences 1994

      Book  (Arch: BB 1 WRA; Anthrop B 36 WRA)

  4. Lecture 4. Adaptation, Phylogeny and Reconstruction of Behaviour (20 Oct) – Christophe Soligo 7 items
    The process of natural selection is central to understanding how the environment has shaped humanevolution. It also provides the theoretical framework for using skeletal evidence to reconstructbehaviour of humans and other animals in the past. In this session we go through concepts ofadaptation, how to test hypotheses of adaptation, and the challenges of then using evidence of adaptation to reconstruct behaviour.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. Reconstructing behavior in the primate fossil record - Plavcan, J. Michael c2002

        Book  pp. 1-41 (Arch: BB 3 PLA; Anthrop; B 44 PLA)

      2. Adaptation - Rose, Michael R., Lauder, George V. c1996

        Book  (Biology J 7 ROS)

    2. Inferring phylogenies - Felsenstein, Joseph c2004

      Book  (Biology J 9 FEL)

    3. Cladistics: the theory and practice of parsimony analysis - Kitching, Ian J. 1998

      Book  (Biology: A 9 KIT)

    4. Adaptation and natural selection: a critique of some current evolutionary thought - Williams, George C. c1966

      Book  (Science: Issue Desk WIL; Zoology: 22 e WIL)

  5. Lecture 5. Plio-Pleistocene environments (27 Oct) – Phil Hopley 6 items
    The climatic and ecological context of human evolution is crucial to the understanding of homininadaptations and the speciation and extinction of early hominins. This seminar will outline trends inglobal and African climate in the Plio-Pleistocene and will discuss the geological and palaeontologicalevidence used to reconstruct hominin environments. We will discuss different hypotheses relating tothe micro- and macro-evolutionary responses of hominins and other species to Plio-Pleistoceneclimatic change. Hominin ecomorphology will be discussed within the context of changingenvironments.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. ATMOSPHERE: Climate Change and Human Evolution - A. K. Behrensmeyer 27/01/2006

        Article 

      2. Trends, Rhythms, and Aberrations in Global Climate 65 Ma to Present - James Zachos, Mark Pagani, Lisa Sloan, Ellen Thomas and Katharina Billups 2001

        Article 

    2. Late Pliocene Faunal Turnover in the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia - Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Nancy E. Todd, Richard Potts and Geraldine E. McBrinn 1997

      Article 

    3. Evolution and Climate Variability - Richard Potts 1996

      Article 

    4. Isotopic Evidence for Dietary Variability in the Early Hominin Paranthropus robustus - Matt Sponheimer, Benjamin H. Passey, Darryl J. de Ruiter, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Thure E. Cerling and Julia A. Lee-Thorp 2006

      Article 

  6. Lecture 6. Taphonomy and Site Formation Studies (10 Nov) – Ignacio de la Torre and Andrew Garrard 12 items
    Paleolithic sites are commonly found in caves and rockshelters, eroding out of cuts in alluvial deposits,as well as in open-air sites in arid and semi-arid environments. Each of these settings has formationprocesses that are distinct, and often heavily impacted by natural factors. In order to determine whichcharacteristics of a site are the result of human behavior, and which stem from natural taphonomicprocesses, it is essential for archaeologists to understand the human and natural factors that interactto transform an ephemeral camp site, chipping station or base camp into the archaeological depositswe excavate and record. In this session we will discuss the taphonomy of hunter-gatherer sites inrockshelters, alluvial settings and arid environments.
    1. Early Sites

    2. Highly Recommended Reading: 2 items
      1. Bones in contention: competing explanations for the juxtaposition of Early Pleistocene artefacts and faunal remains - Isaac G.L. 1983

        Chapter  Digitised Reading

      2. On the Structure of the Lower Pleistocene Archaeological Record - Kenneth E. Juell, Douglas A. Edwards and Nicola Stern 1994

        Article 

    3. Formation processes of the archaeological record - Schiffer, Michael B. 1987

      Book  (Arch: Issue Desk SCH6)

    4. Later Sites

    5. Highly Recommended Reading: 2 items
      1. Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology - Goldberg, Paul, Macphail, Richard c2006

        Book  (Chapter 6 on “Aeolian settings and geomorphological environments” and Chapter 8 on “Caves and Rockshelters”) Malden MA, Blackwell Science: 169-187. (Arch: BA 10 GOL; Issue Desk GOL2)

    6. Site formation processes in Kebara and Hayonim Caves and their significance in Levantine prehistoric caves - Goldberg P., Bar-Yosef O. 1998

      Chapter  (Arch: BC 120 AKA; Issue Desk AKA)

  7. Lecture 7. Human Fossil Record I: Earliest Hominins and Australopithecines (17 Nov) – Matt Skinner 8 items
    The palaeontological record of ancient hominins is covered in detail in the Palaeoanthropology optioncourse. The purpose of these two lectures is to provide a brief overview of general patterns in thehuman fossil record over the last seven million years, including the major groups of hominin species,current understanding of their evolutionary relationships, and major questions in humanpalaeontology. The first lecture covers the earliest putative hominins and species of the genusAustralopithecus.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 2 items
      1. The species and diversity of Australopiths - Kimbel B. Kimbel B.

        Chapter  pp. 1539-1573. E-book

      2. The earliest putative hominids - Senut B. 2007

        Chapter  pp. 1519-1538. E-book

    2. An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy - Aiello, Leslie, Dean, Christopher c1990

      Book  (Arch: BB 1 AIE; Anthrop: B 25 AIE)

    3. Australopithecus sediba: A New Species of Homo-Like Australopith from South Africa - L. R. Berger, D. J. de Ruiter, S. E. Churchill, P. Schmid 09/04/2010

      Article 

    4. Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors - M. F. Teaford, P. S. Ungar 05/12/2000

      Article 

    5. Ardipithecus ramidus and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids - T. D. White, B. Asfaw, Y. Beyene, Y. Haile-Selassie 02/10/2009

      Article 

    6. The hominin fossil record: taxa, grades and clades - Bernard Wood, Nicholas Lonergan 04/2008

      Article 

  8. Lecture 8. The Human Fossil Record II: The Genus Homo (24 Nov) – Anna Barros 9 items
    This lecture begins with a discussion of the origins of the genus Homo and covers species up to andincluding modern humans.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 2 items
      1. The Origin of Neandertals - J. J. Hublin and Richard G. Klein 2009

        Article 

      2. New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo - Meave G. Leakey, Fred Spoor, M. Christopher Dean, Craig S. Feibel 2012-8-8

        Article 

    2. Five years of - Leslie C. Aiello 2010

      Article 

    3. A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome - R. E. Green, J. Krause, A. W. Briggs, T. Maricic 07/05/2010

      Article 

    4. Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia - David Lordkipanidze, Tea Jashashvili, Abesalom Vekua, Marcia S. Ponce de León 2007-9-20

      Article 

    5. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia - David Reich, Richard E. Green, Martin Kircher, Johannes Krause 23/12/2010

      Article 

    6. Evolution in the Genus - Bernard Wood, Jennifer Baker 12/2011

      Article 

    7. The changing face of genusHomo - Bernard Wood, Mark Collard 1999

      Article 

  9. Lecture 9. Genetics and Human Evolution (01 Dec) – Mark Thomas 8 items
    The study of molecular information revolutionised anthropology in the 1960s and 1970s, pointing tomajor conclusions such as the close relationships of humans to chimpanzees and the relatively highlevels of genetic variation within human populations as opposed to between. In recent decadesgenetics has taken a central place in understanding modern human origins, and the study of ancientDNA may give us a complete Neanderthal genome within a matter of years. This session combinesthe history of understanding with current major topics in human evolutionary genetics.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 2 items
      1. Human evolutionary genetics: origins, peoples & disease - Jobling, Mark A., Hurles, Matthew, Tyler-Smith, Chris c2004

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 JOB; Medical Science: BK 10 JOB)

      2. The history and geography of human genes - Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, Paolo, Piazza, Alberto c1994

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 CAV)

    2. Genetics and the making of Homo sapiens - Sean B. Carroll 2003-4-24

      Article 

    3. A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome - R. E. Green, J. Krause, A. W. Briggs, T. Maricic 07/05/2010

      Article 

    4. Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans - Matthias Krings, Anne Stone, Ralf W Schmitz, Heike Krainitzki 1997-7

      Article 

    5. Human evolution and the Y chromosome - R John Mitchell, Michael F Hammer 12/1996

      Article 

  10. Lecture 10. Evolution of Human Life History (08 Dec) – Christopher Dean 8 items
    Humans are long-lived primates who give birth to highly dependent infants and have an extendedperiod of childhood. Determining when the modern human life history pattern emerged sheds light onthe evolution of human behaviour and social organisation. In this session we review current evidencefor these changes and the methods by which they are studied in the fossil record.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity - Hillard Kaplan, Kim Hill, Jane Lancaster, A. Magdalena Hurtado 2000

        Article 

      2. Toward a Life History of the Hominidae - B. Holly Smith and Robert L. Tompkins 1995

        Article 

    2. Growth and development in the Nariokotome Youth, KNM-WT 15000 - Dean, M.C., Smith, B.H. 2009

      Chapter  pp. 101-120. (Arch: BB 1 GRI)

    3. The evolution of thought: evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence - Russon, Anne E., Begun, David R. 2004

      Book  (Anthrop: B 34 RUS; Online see library catalogue)

    4. The evolution of life histories - Stephen C. Stearns 1992

      Book 

  11. Lecture 11.Stone Tool Technology and Analysis (12 Jan) – Norah Moloney 8 items
    The next two sessions explore th develoment of lithic technology throught the Palaeoloithic and the analytical techniques and the methodological and interpretative issues involved in the study of stone tool assemblages. The classes will be accompanied by practical handling sessions with archaeological material from the Institute of Archaeology's collections.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 1 item
      1. The technology of knapped stone: followed by a multilingual vocabulary arabic, english, french, german, greek, italian, russian, spanish - Marie-Louise Inizan, Hélène Roche, Jacques Tixier, Michèle Reduron-Ballinger 1992

        Book 

    2. Lithics: macroscopic approaches to analysis - William Andrefsky c2005

      Book 

    3. Handbook of paleolithic typology - André Debénath, Harold Lewis Dibble 1993-

      Book 

    4. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - John J. Shea 2013

      Book 

    5. Flintknapping: making and understanding stone tools - John C. Whittaker 1994

      Book 

  12. Lecture 12. Stone Tool Technology and Analysis II (19 Jan) - Nora Maloney 0 items
    Continuation of above
  13. Lecture 13. Reconstructing Behaviour from Stone Tool Assemblages (26 Jan) - Matt Pope 11 items
    Undertaking a thorough technological analysis of a stone tool assemblage should never be viewed asa final outcome in itself. Stone tools provide a widespread, durable and informative record of pasthuman behavior and therefore should be seen as a valuable route to reconstructing paterns oflandscape use, social organisation and palaeoecology. In this session case studies from NorthEuropean Lower and Middle Palaeolithic are presented for discussion as case studies Examples fromthe palaeolithic sites of Boxgrove and La Cotte de St Brelade are presented in order to sure howtechnology, taphonomy and contextual studies can combine to dleiover detailed accounts of ancienthuman life-ways.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 4 items
      1. Stone Age visiting cards: approaches to the study of early hominid land-use patterns - Isaac G.L. 1981

        Chapter  Digitised reading

    2. Life and Death of a Boxgrove Biface. - Austin L. 1993

      Chapter  Digitised reading

    3. La Cotte de St. Brelade 1961-1978: excavations by C.B.M. McBurney - Callow, Paul, Cornford, J. M., McBurney, C. B. M. 1986

      Book  (Arch: DAA 410 C.4 CAL)

    4. Boxgrove: a Middle Pleistocene hominid site at Eastham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex - Roberts, Mark, Parfitt, Simon, Austin, L. A., English Heritage 1999

      Book  (Arch: DAA 410 Qto ROB; Issue Desk ROB 2)

    5. ‘A veil of stones’: on the interpretation of an early Palaeolithic low-density scatter at Maastricht Belvedere (The Netherlands) - Roebroeks W., De Loecker D., Hennekens P. 1992

      Article  Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 25:1-16. (Arch: Journal) PRINT

  14. Lecture 14. Hunter-Gatherers - Immediate v Delayed Return (02 Feb)- James Woodburn 10 items
    Ethnographic work amongst recent and contemporary hunter-gatherers has often been used to help in interpreting the archaeological signature of behaviour left by Paleolithic societies. In this session, social organization, subsistence patterns and ideological orientations amongst such groups will be discussed with a particular emphasis on the differences between 'immediate' and 'delayed return' communities.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. Hunter-gatherers and human evolution - Frank W. Marlowe 13/04/2005

        Article 

      2. The Original Affluent Society - M Sahlins

        Chapter 

      3. Egalitarian Societies - James Woodburn 1982

        Article 

    2. The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways - Robert L. Kelly c1995

      Book 

    3. As well as words: Congo Pygmy hunting, mimicry and play - J Lewis

      Chapter 

    4. The Significance of Food Storage Among Hunter-Gatherers: Residence Patterns, Population Densities, and Social Inequalities [and Comments and Reply] - Alain Testart, Richard G. Forbis, Brian Hayden, Tim Ingold, Stephen M. Perlman, David L. Pokotylo, Peter Rowley-Conwy and David E. Stuart 1982

      Article 

    5. Egalitarian societies revisited - J Woodburn

      Chapter 

  15. Lecture 15. Application of Ethnoarchaeology (09 Feb) – Todd Whitelaw 13 items
    Archaeological interpretations are inevitably based on some form of analogy with the present. Suchanalogies may simply reflect the researcher's implicit and intuitive understandings of human natureand the natural world or may derive from focused empirical studies and formalized behaviouralmodels. In this session there will be a consideration of the role of ethnoarchaeological (andexperimental) approaches for inspiring, making explicit, and testing fruitful analogies, and movingbeyond this to constructing models for interpreting past behaviour. The promise, pitfalls and specialchallenges of applying analogies and models to the deep past will be considered.
    1. General:

    2. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. Behavioral Ecology and Archaeology - Douglas W. Bird and James F. O'Connell 2006

        Article 

      2. Hunter-gatherers and anthropology; Hunter-gatherers and prehistory - Kelly, R.F. 1995

        Chapter  pp. 1-37, 333-34. (Arch: BB 6 KEL; Issue Desk KEL 2).

    3. The importance of experimental replicative and functional studies in Palaeolithic archaeology - Toth N. 1991

      Chapter  pp. 109-124. (Arch: DC 100 Qto CLA; Issue Desk CLA 30; TC 3266).

    4. Examples of application:

    5. Highly Recommended Reading: 3 items
      1. Researching ambiguity: frames of reference and site structure - Binford, L. 1987

        Chapter  449-512. (Reprinted in L. Binford (1989) Debating Archaeology. New York: Academic Press: 223-63). (Arch: HC KEN; AH BIN).

      2. Some dimensions of variability in the social organization of community space among foragers - Whitelaw, T. 1991

        Chapter  pp. 139-188. (Arch: BD Qto GAM; PDF on Academia.edu).

    6. Order without architecture: functional, social and symbolic factors in huntergatherer settlement organisation - Whitelaw, T. 1994

      Chapter  pp. 217-43. (Arch: AH PAR; Anth: E 15 PEA; PDF on Academia.edu).

  16. Lecture 16. Reconstructing Subsistence Strategies (Thurs 27 Feb: 2-4 pm) – Simon Parfitt (At Natural History Museum) 11 items
    The reconstruction of subsistence strategies is central to understanding many aspects of early humanbehaviour and has been the focus of some of the most-highly charged debates in contemporarypalaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic archaeology. In this session we will discuss the archaeologicaland paleontological evidence used to reconstruct subsistence strategies, by examining faunal remainsfrom the Natural History Museum collections. We will focus on three principal topics relating to theorigin of meat eating in the Early Pleistocene, Middle Pleistocene 'big game hunters', and the questionof cannibalism and ritual treatment of human remains in the Upper Palaeolithic. We will review howdiverse lines of evidence (e.g. from plant remains, isotopic analysis of human remains and dentalcalculus) can be integrated to provide more a complete reconstruction of early human diet.
    1. Highly Recommended Reading: 4 items
      1. Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups - Silvia M. Bello, Simon A. Parfitt, Chris B. Stringer 2011-2-16

        Article 

      2. Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable - Ungar, Peter S. 2007

        Book  (particularly chapters by Bunn, Blumenschine) (Arch: Issue Desk UNG; BB 1 UNG)

    2. Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia - Shannon P. McPherron, Zeresenay Alemseged, Curtis W. Marean, Jonathan G. Wynn 2010-8-12

      Article 

    3. Hominid Dietary Selection Before Fire [and Comments and Reply] - Ann Brower Stahl, R. I. M. Dunbar, Katherine Homewood, Fumiko Ikawa-Smith, Adriaan Kortlandt, W. C. McGrew, Katharine Milton, J. D. Paterson, F. E. Poirier, Jito Sugardjito, Nancy M. Tanner and R. W. Wrangham 1984

      Article 

    4. The Tortoise and the Hare - by Mary C. Stiner 2000

      Article 

    5. The Raw and the Stolen: Cooking and the Ecology of Human Origins - Richard W. Wrangham, James Holland Jones, Greg Laden, David Pilbeam 12/1999

      Article 

  17. Lecture 17. Case Study: Primate Evolution (03 Mar) – to be announced 1 item
    1. Details to follow

  18. Lecture 18. Case Study: Human Fossil Record (10 Mar) – to be announced 1 item
    1. Details to follow

  19. Lecture 19. Case Study: Earlier Palaeolithic (Thurs 13 Mar: 2-4 pm) – Nick Ashton (At British Museum, Franks House) 1 item
    1. Details to follow

  20. Lecture 20. Case Study: Later Palaeolithic (24 Mar) – Andrew Garrard 1 item
    1. Details to follow

  21. ASSESSMENTS 18 items
    1. The course will be assessed by two essays of between 3,800 – 4,200 words each (see Word-lengthsection below), one of which should be on a 'Palaeoanthropological' topic (see Group A essays below)and one on a 'Palaeolithic Archaeological' topic (see Group B essays below). They can be written inany order. It is very important to select essay topics which do not overlap closely with those beingwritten for other courses being undertaken as part of the degree. If you are uncertain, please checkwith the Course Co-ordinator.The deadlines for the essays will be:- Essay 1: Friday January 24- Essay 2: Friday May 2

    2. WORD-LENGTH

    3. UCL has very strict regulations relating to word-length. For work that exceeds the specified maximumlength by less than10% the mark will be reduced by ten percentage marks; but the penalised mark willnot be reduced below the pass mark, assuming the work merited a pass. For work that exceeds thespecified maximum length by 10% or more, a mark of zero will be recorded. The following should notbe included in the word-count: title page, contents pages, lists of figure and tables, abstract, preface,acknowledgements, bibliography, captions and contents of tables and figures, and appendices.

    4. CITING OF SOURCES

    5. Coursework should be expressed in a student's own words giving the exact source of any ideas,information, diagrams etc. that are taken from the work of others. Any direct quotations from thework of others must be indicated as such by being placed between inverted commas.Plagiarism is regarded as a very serious irregularity which can carry very heavy penalties. It isyour responsibility to read and abide by the requirements for presentation, referencing and avoidanceof plagiarism to be found in the IoA 'Coursework Guidelines' on the IoA websitehttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook.

    6. PRESENTATION

    7. Essays and other assessed work must be word-processed (unless otherwise specified) and should beprinted on one or both sides of the paper, using 1.5-line spacing. Bibliographies may be in single linespacing. Adequate margins should be left for written comments by the examiner. Students areencouraged to use diagrams and/or tables where appropriate. These should be clearly referred to atthe appropriate point in the text, and if derived from another source, this must be clearlyacknowledged.

    8. SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK

    9. Students are required to submit hard copy of all coursework to the course co-ordinators pigeon holevia the Red Essay Box at Reception by the appropriate deadline. The coursework must be stapled toa completed blue coversheet (available from the web, from outside Room 411A or from the library).

       

      Please note that students should put their Candidate Number, not their name, on all coursework.They should also put the Candidate Number and course code on each page of their work. (Yourcandidiate number is a 5 digit alphanumeric code which will be found on portico).

       

      Please note that there are stringent penalties for late submission across all Departments of UCL.Late submission will be penalized in accordance with these regulations unless permission has beengranted by the Course Co-ordinator in advance of the deadline and an Extension Request Form (ERF)completed. See MA/MSc degree handbook or Coursework Guidelines on the IoA website for detailshttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook/submission.

       

      Date-stamping will be via 'Turnitin' (see below), so in addition to submitting hard copy, students mustalso submit their work to Turnitin by midnight on the day of the deadline.

       

      It is essential that students upload all parts of their coursework to Turnitin (ie including the bibliographyand images). This ensures that a complete electronic copy of all work is available in case an essaygoes astray. Please be assured that markers will not include these additional elements when checking wordcounts. Please put your Candidate number at the start of the title line on Turnitin,followed by a short title of the coursework.

       

      Students who encounter technical problems submitting their work to Turnitin should email the natureof the problem to ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk in advance of the midnight deadline in order that the TurnitinAdvisers can notify the Course Co-ordinator that it may be appropriate to waive the late submissionpenalty.

       

      If there is any other unexpected crisis on the submission day, students should telephone or(preferably) e-mail the Course Co-ordinator, and follow this up with a completed ERF.

       

      For this course, the Turnitin 'Class ID' is: 611840 and the 'Class Enrolment Password' is:IoA1314

       

      Further information concerning Turnitin is given on the IoA website:http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook/turnitinTurnitin advisors will be available to help you via email: ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk if needed.

       

      TIMESCALE FOR RETURN OF MARKED COURSEWORK TO STUDENTSYou can expect to receive your marked work within four calendar weeks of the official submissiondeadline. If you do not receive your work within this period, or a written explanation from the marker,you should notify the IoA's Academic Administrator, Judy Medrington.

       

      KEEPING COPIES AND RETURN OF COURSEWORK TO COURSE COORDINATORPlease note that it is an Institute requirement that you retain a copy (this can be electronic) of allcoursework submitted. When your marked essay is returned to you, you should return it to the courseco-ordinator within two weeks, so that it can be second-marked and is available to the Board ofExaminers. You may like to keep a copy of the comments if you are likely to wish to refer to theselater.

       

      COMMUNICATIONIf any changes need to be made to the course arrangements, these will normally be communicated byemail. It is therefore essential that you consult your UCL e-mail account regularly.

       

      ATTENDANCEA register will be taken at each class. If you are unable to attend a class, please notify the lecturer byemail. Departments are required to report each student's attendance to UCL Registry at frequentintervals throughout each term. A 70% minimum attendance at all scheduled sessions is required(excluding absences due to illness or other adverse circumstances, provided that these are supportedby medical certificates or other documentation, as appropriate).

       

      DYSLEXIA AND OTHER DISABILITIESIf you have dyslexia or any other disability, please make your lecturers aware of this. Please discusswith your lecturers whether there is any way in which they can help you. Students with dyslexia arereminded to indicate this on each piece of coursework.

       

      FEEDBACKIn trying to make this course as effective as possible, we welcome feedback from students during thecourse of the year. All students are asked to give their views on the course in an anonymousquestionnaire which will be circulated at one of the last sessions of the course. These questionnairesare taken seriously and help the Course Co-ordinator to develop the course. The summarisedresponses are considered by the Institute's Staff-Student Consultative Committee, TeachingCommittee, and by the Faculty Teaching Committee.

       

      If students are concerned about any aspect of this course we hope they will feel able to talk tothe Course Co-ordinator, but if they feel this is not appropriate, they should the AcademicAdministrator (Judy Medrington), or the Chair of Teaching Committee (Dr. Katherine Wright).

    10. ESSAYS – GROUP A: PALAEOANTHROPOLOGY

    11. A1. History of palaeoanthropology. Write a synthesis of the history of interpretation of human evolution, focusing on a specific time period of your choice (e.g. late C19 / early C20). (N.B. If you ch 8 items
      1. Theories of human evolution: a century of debate, 1844-1944 - Bowler, Peter J. c1986

        Book  (Anthrop: B 30 BOW; History of Science: RG 5 BOW)

      2. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex - Darwin, Charles, Oldham, Charles, Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club 1888

        Book  (For reprints see: History of Science: RG 4 DAR)

      3. Debating humankind's place in nature, 1860-2000: the nature of paleoanthropology - Delisle, Richard G. c2007

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 DEL)

      4. The antiquity of man - Keith, Arthur 1915

        Book  (Order from Library Stores)

      5. Missing links: the hunt for earliest man - Reader, John 1981

        Book 

  22. A2. Adaptation and primate evolution. Review and evaluate the methods for studying adaptation in the primate fossil record, focusing your discussion on one of the major primate radiations. 10 items
    1. Useful references: 10 items
      1. Primate adaptation and evolution - Fleagle, John G. c1998

        Book  (Anthrop: B 34 FLE)

      2. The primate fossil record - Hartwig, Walter Carl 2002

        Book  (Anthrop: B 40 HAR)

      3. Primate origins and evolution: a phylogenetic reconstruction - Martin, R. D., Martin, Anne-Elise c1990

        Book  (Anthrop: B 34 MAR)

      4. Reconstructing behavior in the primate fossil record - Plavcan, J. Michael c2002

        Book  (Anthrop: B 34 RAV)

      5. Primate origins: adaptations and evolution - Matthew J. Ravosa, Marian Dagosto c2007

        Book  E Book

      6. Adaptation - Rose, Michael R., Lauder, George V. c1996

        Book  (Anthrop: B 34 FLO)

      7. Anthropoid origins: new visions - Callum Ross, Richard F. Kay c2004

        Book 

      8. Primate Evolution and the Environment - Christoph Soligo 2007

        Article 

      9. Adaptation and natural selection: a critique of some current evolutionary thought - Williams, George C. c1966

        Book  (Science: Issue Desk WIL; Zoology: 22 e WIL)

  23. A3. Hominin dispersals. Discuss the biogeographic history of the hominin clade, focusing on possible reasons behind the major dispersal events. 9 items
    1. Useful references: 9 items
      1. EARLY DISPERSALS OF FROM AFRICA - Susan C. Antón, Carl C. Swisher, III 10/2004

        Article 

      2. An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa - Robin Dennell, Wil Roebroeks 22/12/2005

        Article 

      3. 'Out of Africa': an investigation into the earliest occupation of the Old World - Langbroek, Marco 2004

        Book  (Arch: Issue Desk LAN; BB 1 LAN Qto)

      4. A fourth hominin skull from Dmanisi, Georgia - David Lordkipanidze, Abesalom Vekua, Reid Ferring, G. Philip Rightmire 11/2006

        Article 

  24. A4. Neanderthals and Modern Humans. Synthesise what we know of the evolution and biology of Neanderthals and modern humans, focusing on the possible causes for the apparent demise of Neanderthals and 9 items
    1. Useful references: 9 items
      1. The Neanderthal-H. sapiens interface in Eurasia - Stringer C. 2004

        Chapter  (Arch: BB 1 HAR)

  25. A5. Hominin adaptations. Discuss the development and significance of the bipedal locomotor adaptation in human evolution. 7 items
    1. Useful references: 7 items
      1. Terrestriality, bipedalism and the origin of language - Aiello L.C. 1996

        Chapter  (Arch: TC 1424; Anthrop: B 36 RUN)

      2. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo - Dennis M. Bramble, Daniel E. Lieberman 18/11/2004

        Article 

      3. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion - F. Spoor, T. Garland, G. Krovitz, T. M. Ryan 26/06/2007

        Article 

      4. The obstetric pelvis of A.L. 288-1 (Lucy) - Robert G. Tague, C. Owen Lovejoy 1986-5

        Article 

  26. ESSAYS – GROUP B: PALAEOLITHIC ARCHAEOLOGY

  27. B1. Changing paradigms in the history of Palaeolithic archaeology. Review the history of research and theoretical agendas on the study of the earliest paleoanthropological sites from Africa OR Asia. ( 10 items
    1. Useful references: 10 items
      1. In the footsteps of Eve: the mystery of human origins - Berger, Lee R., Hilton-Barber, Brett, National Geographic Society (U.S.) c2000

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 BER; Anthrop: B 34 BER)

      2. A Personal Memoir - Clark J.D. 1990

        Chapter  (Arch: DC 100 ROB; Issue Desk ROB 4)

      3. Unveiling man's origins: ten decades of thought about human evolution - Leakey, L. S. B., Goodall, Vanne Morris 1970

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 LEA)

      4. Bones of contention: controversies in the search for human origins - Lewin, Roger c1987

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 LEW)

      5. The wisdom of the bones: in search of human origins - Walker, Alan, Shipman, Pat 1996

        Book  (Arch: BB 1 WAL)

  28. B2. Evolution of diet 10 items
    Review and critique the various lines of evidence for the evolution of hominin diet prior to the emergence of modern humans. Discuss the potential importance of plant versus animal foodsand the impact of the development of cooking.
    1. Useful references: 10 items
      1. Hunting, power scavenging, and butchering by Hadza foragers and by Plio- Pleistocene Homo - Bunn H.T. 2001

        Chapter  pp. 199-218. (Arch: BB 1 STA; Issue Desk STA 3)

      2. What do stable isotopes tell us about hominid dietary and ecological niches in the pliocene? - J. A. Lee-Thorp, M. Sponheimer, N. J. van der Merwe 01/2003

        Article 

      3. Neandertal hunting and meat-processing in the Near East - Speth J.D., Tchernov E. 2001

        Chapter  pp. 52-72. (Arch: BB 1 STA; Issue Desk STA 3)

      4. Hominid Dietary Selection Before Fire [and Comments and Reply] - Ann Brower Stahl, R. I. M. Dunbar, Katherine Homewood, Fumiko Ikawa-Smith, Adriaan Kortlandt, W. C. McGrew, Katharine Milton, J. D. Paterson, F. E. Poirier, Jito Sugardjito, Nancy M. Tanner and R. W. Wrangham 1984

        Article 

      5. Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors - M. F. Teaford, P. S. Ungar 05/12/2000

        Article  pp. 167-190. (particularly chapters by Bunn, Blumenschine) (Arch: Issue Desk UNG; BB 1 UNG)

      6. Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable - Peter S. Ungar 2007

        Book 

      7. The Raw and the Stolen: Cooking and the Ecology of Human Origins - Richard W. Wrangham, James Holland Jones, Greg Laden, David Pilbeam 12/1999

        Article 

  29. B3. Earliest technology. 8 items
    Using all evidence you find relevant (fossil, lithic, environmental, etc.) assess the nature ofvariation in the Oldowan Industry (2.6-1.5 Ma). Is it essentially uniform across time and space,or is there meaningful evidence of chronological and/or regional variation? Does the recordimply the presence of more than one tool-making species or "culture" in the Oldowan, and arehow valid are named variants like the "pre-Oldowan", "Developed Oldowan" and "KarariIndustry"?
    1. Useful references: 8 items
      1. Towards a technological reassessment of East African pliopleistocene lithic assemblages - Ludwig B.V., Harris J.W.K. 1998

        Chapter  pp. 84-107. (Arch: BC 120 PET)

      2. The Oldowan: case studies into the earliest Stone Age - Schick, Kathy Diane, Toth, Nicholas Patrick c2006

        Book  pp. 3-42. (Arch: TC 3531; DCD Qto TOT)

      3. Raw material selectivity of the earliest stone toolmakers at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia - Dietrich Stout, Jay Quade, Sileshi Semaw, Michael J. Rogers 2005-4

        Article 

  30. B4. Origin of Modern Humans 9 items
    The origin of modern humans is a major area of current interest in human evolutionary studies,with many important new contributions in recent years. How do archaeologists define andidentify "behavioural modernity" and what does the most current evidence indicate regardingthe potential cause(s), nature, timing, and location of its emergence? What is the importance ofarchaeological evidence in relation to fossil and genetic evidence in understanding modernhuman origins?
    1. Useful references: 9 items
      1. Origins and revolutions: human identity in earliest prehistory - Gamble, Clive 2007

        Book  (chapter 2) (Arch: BC 140 GAM; Issue Desk GAM 3)

      2. The Origin of Modern Human Behavior - by Christopher S. Henshilwood 2003

        Article 

      3. The prehistory of the mind: a search for the origins of art, religion and science - Mithen, Steven J. 1996

        Book  (chapters 8-10). (Arch: BB 1 MIT; Issue Desk MIT 3)

  31. B5. Taphonomy and site formation processes. 10 items
    Interpreting the hominin activity areas uncovered in Palaeolithic excavations requires a detailed understanding of the taphonomic and diagenetic processes which may have occurred since site abandonment. With reference to sites from the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic, evaluate the methods used in unravelling site formation processes and reconstructing activity areas.
    1. Useful references: 10 items
      1. Late Pliocene Homo and Hominid Land Use from Western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania - Robert J. Blumenschine, Charles R. Peters, Fidelis T. Masao, Ronald J. Clarke, Alan L. Deino, Richard L. Hay, Carl C. Swisher, Ian G. Stanistreet, Gail M. Ashley, Lindsay J. McHenry, Nancy E. Sikes, Nikolaas J. van der Merwe, Joanne C. Tactikos, Amy E. Cushing, Daniel M. Deocampo, Jackson K. Njau and James I. Ebert 2003

        Article 

      2. Taphonomy and experimentation - C. Denys 08/2002

        Article 

      3. Site formation processes in Kebara and Hayonim Caves and their significance in Levantine prehistoric caves - Goldberg P., Bar-Yosef O. 1998

        Chapter  (Arch: BC 120 AKA; Issue Desk AKA)

      4. Neanderthals in the Levant: behavioral organization and the beginnings of human modernity - Henry, Donald O. 2003

        Book  (chapters 8-9) (Arch: DBA 100 HEN)

      5. Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of C.K. (Bob) Brain - C. K. Brain, Travis Rayne Pickering, Kathy Diane Schick, Nicholas Patrick Toth c2007

        Book 

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