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This list relates to the academic year Academic Year 2014/15 which ended on 01/07/2015
This list has been archived
  1. Introductory reading 3 items
    1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Scarre, Christopher 2013

      Book  By far the best of all is the multi-authored:

    2. Ancient civilizations - Scarre, Christopher, Fagan, Brian M. c2003

      Book  For Term 2 a good introduction to many of the complex societies examined is:

    3. A history of the world in 100 objects - MacGregor, Neil 2010

      Book  A stimulating complement, based on a hundred objects in the British Museum, is:

  2. Lecture 1: Introduction to the course (Kevin MacDonald) 1 item
    The first session will consist of an introduction to the course, its structure and aims, and an explanation of what is involved with seminars and assessment.
    1. Reading: The only essential reading is this handbook!

  3. Lecture 2: A deep (pre) History for Humanity (Kevin MacDonald) 8 items
    Archaeology, it can be argued, addresses the lion's share of global long-term history, and therefore most of the fundamental reasons why human and other contemporary life on the planet has developed as it has, and looks as it does today. This lecture argues for archaeology's unrivalled scope in this respect, and considers how archaeologists view change and causality in 'deep time'.
    1. Essential 4 items
      1. A Determinstic Explanation of Human Development 1 item
        1. Prologue: Yali's question - Jared M. Diamond

          Chapter  A Deterministic Explanation of Human Development

      2. A More Particularistic View of Human Development 1 item
        1. The origins of political order: from prehuman times to the French Revolution - Francis Fukuyama 2011

          Book  A more particularistic view of human development

    2. Recommended 4 items
      1. The world system and the Earth system: global socioenvironmental change and sustainability since the Neolithic - Alf Hornborg, Carole L. Crumley c2007

        Book 

      2. The discovery of the past: the origins of archaeology - Alain Schnapp 1996

        Book 

      3. Deep history: the architecture of past and present - Andrew Shryock, Daniel Lord Smail, Timothy K. Earle c2011

        Book 

      4. A history of archaeological thought - Bruce G. Trigger 2006

        Book  Read into Chapters 2, 5 and 7 as time allows

  4. Lecture 3: Before us: evolutionary perspectives ( Matt Pope) 5 items
    What are the origins of our biological genus, Homo and what are the processes which have shaped our bodies, minds and culture? Taking a long view, this lecture examines the evolution of the gunus Homo, set within the framework of long-term cycles of global climate change and environmental pressures and opportunities. The conditions in which features such a bipedalism, tool use, changes in diet and increasing brain size are explored, with reference to fossil, lithic and environmental data.
    1. Essential 2 items
      1. The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies - Scarre, Christopher 2013

        Book  Chapters 2-4

      2. The human career: human biological and cultural origins - Richard G. Klein 2009

        Book  Chapter 4 in particular

    2. Recommended 3 items
      1. Making silent stones speak - Kathy Diane Schick, Nicholas Patrick Toth 1993

        Book 

      2. The complete world of human evolution - Chris Stringer, Peter Andrews c2005

        Book 

  5. Lecture 4: Case studies (i) Olduvali (Tomos Proffitt) (ii) Jersey (Matt Pope) 6 items
    These case studies offer two very different windows into human evolution, both in terms of timing and location. Olduvai Gorge remains to this day one of the key African sites for the Early Stone Age, providing critical evidence of the environmental context and behavioural proclivities of early hominins. Regarding the second case study, Boxgrove, a site dating to half a million years ago from southern Britain, provides an exceptional window into the lifeways of the human species Homo Heidelbergensis. The archaeological record of this site exceptionally preserved in fine silty sediments, has captured moments in the stone tool production, hunting and butchery behaviour. This case study explores how we, as archaeologists can attempt to reconstruct the behaviour and society fo early human species and bring into focus aspects of the life which helps to define the differences and similarities of this type of human species in comparison to ourselves.
    1. Olduvai 4 items
      1. Olduvai Gorge and the Olduvai Landscape Paleoanthropology Project - Robert J. Blumenschine, Ian G. Stanistreet, Fidelis T. Masao 2012-8

        Article 

      2. The Origins of the Acheulean at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania): A New Paleoanthropological Project in East Africa - Ignacio De la Torre, Lindsay McHenry, Jackson Njau, Michael Pante 01/12/2012

        Article 

    2. Boxgrove 2 items
  6. Lecture 5: The Begining fo Us: Early Modern Humans and Neanderthals (Matt Pope) 10 items
    In this lecture we examine the emergence of our own species, Homo Sapiens, in terms of their physical and behavioural evolution and explore how we came to apparently replace other species on the planet, including Homo Neanderthalensis (The Neanderthals). In what ways is our species unique? and to what degree did cognitive abilities vs new behaviours drive our emergence as the only species on the planet. The role of culture, biology and nices creation are explored.
    1. Essential: 2 items
      1. The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies - Scarre, Christopher 2013

        Book  Chapters 3 and 4

    2. Recommended 8 items
      1. Journey through the Ice Age - Paul G. Bahn, Jean Vertut 1997

        Book 

      2. Archaic Homo Sapiens - J.A.J. Gowlett

        Chapter  Digitised Reading

      3. Gravettian technologies in social contexts - W Roebroeks, M Mussi, J Svoboda

        Chapter 

      4. The Tortoise and the Hare - by Mary C. Stiner 2000

        Article 

      5. In search of the Neanderthals: solving the puzzle of human origins - Chris Stringer, Clive Gamble 1993

        Book 

      6. The origin of our species - Chris Stringer 2011

        Book 

  7. Lecture 6: Case studies (i) La Cotte de St.Brelade (Matt Pope) (ii) Azraq (Andrew Garrard) 14 items
    La Cotte de St Brelade offers a later perspective from the edge of the human world over a period of 250,000 years. It is a site which give detailed evidence for Neanderthal behaviour on an evolutionary time-scale. Aspects fo the archaeology of the site are examined looking at Neanderthal hunting techniques, use of fire and technological innovation. The site is presented as an example of novel niche creation and the nature of Neanderthal life, compared to contemporary human species is explored. The second case study, a prelude to our next lecture, focuses on Azraq in eastern Jordan, looks at the changing environment of this marginal region, the reconstruction of lifeways among gazelle hunters, and the factors that may have led subsequently to the adoption of agriculture.
    1. La Cotte de St. Brelade 8 items
      1. Neanderthals among mammoths: excavations at Lynford Quarry, Norfolk - W. A. Boismier, Clive Gamble, Fiona Coward, J. E. Andrews 2012

        Book 

      2. La Cotte de St. Brelade 1961-1978: excavations by C.B.M. McBurney - Paul Callow, J. M. Cornford, C. B. M. McBurney 1986

        Book 

      3. The palaeolithic societies of Europe - Clive Gamble, Clive Gamble 1999

        Book 

    2. Azraq 6 items
      1. The Pre-Natufian Epipaleolithic: Long-term Behavioral Trends in the Levant - Lisa A. Maher, Tobias Richter, Jay T. Stock 03/2012

        Article 

  8. Lecture 7: Early Holocene Climate Change & Subsistence (Kevin MacDonald) 10 items
    A few millennia after the Last Glacial Maximum, Earth's climate began to warm again, leading, after dramatic accelerations and reversals, to te beginning of the present interglacial, known as the Holocene, around 9500 BC. Warming transformed the planet's environments and seas, and offered enormous new opportunities for fully modern humans - indeed the extraordinary acceleration of subsequent human history is entirely compressed within this precarious blip of environmental time. This lecture outlines the climatic transformation and highlights several of the richly divergent human responses and initiatives with foci on Natufian semi-sedentary wild cultivators in the Levant, hunter-gatherer-fishers in regions, as well as the first expansion of people into the Americas and the greening of the Sahara. A significant development during this period in Western Asia, Japan and Africa was the development and proliferation of pottery with important consequences for subsistence and mobility. Finally, there are the remarkable and unexpected per-Agricultural monuments of Gobekli Tepi from Turkey........
    1. Essential 2 items
      1. After the ice: a global human history, 20,000-5000 BC - Steven J. Mithen 2003

        Book  Take your pick of examples from around the world in Chapters 3-6, 13-17, 19, 23-28, 33-36, 42, 46-49

    2. Recommended 8 items
      1. The emergence of pottery: technology and innovation in ancient societies - William Barnett, John W. Hoopes c1995

        Book  Chapters 2,3, and 4

      2. First peoples in a new world: colonizing ice age America - David J. Meltzer c2009

        Book 

      3. The Holocene: an environmental history - Neil Roberts 1998

        Book 

      4. Natufian Seasonality: A Guess - F.R. Valla

        Chapter 

  9. Lecture 8: First Farmers in Western Eurasia (Kevin Macdonald) 15 items
    Farming, the outcome of this process, laid the foundations for a transformation of the Earth that we still live with today. this lecture takes a comparative look at key ideas and trajectories in early farming concentrating on the largest, oldest agricultural nuclear zones: the Fertile Crescent, which arcs from the Levant through southern Anatolia ( modern Turkey) to the eastern flanks of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and parts of Iran). It explores patterns of change in this region, both i plant and animal management, and in the burgeoning village-level societies and new ritual activities that accompanied this, among which number remarkable 'megasite' communities with several thousand inhabitants - as far as we know the first such communities in the world.
    1. Essential: 2 items
    2. Recommended 13 items
      1. The birth of the gods and the origins of agriculture - Jacques Cauvin 2000

        Book 

      2. The Neolithic Revolution - V. Gordon Childe

        Chapter  Digitised reading

      3. Animals as domesticates: a world view through history - Juliet Clutton-Brock c2012

        Book 

      4. The domestication of Europe - I. Hodder

        Chapter  Digitised reading

      5. The nature of selection during plant domestication - Michael D. Purugganan, Dorian Q. Fuller 2009-2-12

        Article 

  10. Lecture 9: Case studies (i) Plant domestication in the Fertile Crescent (Leilani Lucas) (ii) Early rice cultivation in east Asia( Dorian Fuller) 15 items
    Actually identifying how and where early domestication processes took place is much less straightforward than it might seem, and yet critical to the big picture of agricultural origins. These case studies offer two palaeobotanical examples of such research, from the opposite ends of Asia, and involving markedly differenct challenges and techniques. The first looks at plants in the Fertile Crescent, and how precisely we identify early domesticated crops. The second looks at east Asia, an area of long-suspected but only recently verified early domestication, and investigates the very different issues surrounding rice.
    1. Plant domestication in the Fertile Crescent 5 items
      1. Archaeobotanical Evidence for the Spread of Farming in the Eastern Mediterranean - Sue Colledge, James Conolly, Stephen Shennan 08/2004

        Article 

    2. Early rice cultivation in east Asia 5 items
    3. A rather longer than normal list follows to infill on early east and south Asia 5 items
      1. The origins of food production in north China: A different kind of agricultural revolution - Robert L. Bettinger, Loukas Barton, Christopher Morgan 01/2010

        Article 

      2. The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies - Scarre, Christopher 2013

        Book  Chapter 7. Useful for an overview of culture and society.

      3. The earliest evidence of millet as a staple crop: New light on neolithic foodways in North China - Xinyi Liu, Martin K. Jones, Zhijun Zhao, Guoxiang Liu 10/2012

        Article 

  11. Lecture 10: Case studies (i) Catalhoyuk (Louise Martin) (ii) Expansion of Eurasian Pastoralism (Kat Manning) 11 items
    The Neolithic, as will already be evident, was about much more than farming. It also constituted a major transformation in social relations and demography. Here, two case studies pitched at dramatically different scales offer contrastive if complementary perspectives on such processes. The first takes a contextual look the most intensively excavated of the early, populous megasites, that of Catlhoyuk in turkey, and specifically at how animals and people became entangled in new economic and ritual relationships. The second takes Europe as its canvas, and examines the broad sweep of farming expansion and later in situ developments, searching for regularities and significant differences.
    1. Catalhoyuk 6 items
      1. Çatalhöyük comes Home - Shahina Farid 20/11/2011

        Article 

      2. Stable Isotope Evidence of Diet at Neolithic Çatalhöyük, Turkey - M.P. Richards, J.A. Pearson, T.I. Molleson, N. Russell 2003-1

        Article 

      3. The Catalhoyuk mammal remains - N Russell, L Martin

        Chapter  Digitised Reading

    2. Interpreting farming expansion across Europe 5 items
      1. Going over: the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in north-west Europe - Whittle, A. W. R., Cummings, Vicki, British Academy 2007

        Book  Especially paper by Robb and Miracle and others.

  12. Lecture 11: Alternative Pathways to the Western Asiatic Farming Package (Kevin MacDonald) 13 items
    At variance with the conventional models from western (and eastern) Asia, the early to mid Holocene witnessed entirely different trajectories elsewhere on the planet. Extensive areas remained hunter-gatherer zones, including the entire Australian continent, and elsewhere changes moved to different tempos and involoved quite different suites of practices, domesticates and relations to settled or mobile lifestyles - a reflection in large part of differenct opportunities and pre-existing conditions. This lecure explores developments first in Japan with the early ceramic Jomon complex, relatively sedentary long before it developed agriculture. we then move to Africa, where pastoralism seemingly preceded plant cultivation by several millennia, and did much to shape early societies in a greener Sahara and along the Nile. Finally it is onto the Americas, where a patchwork of diverse initiatives sprang up, based on radically different plants and animals, and including Neotropical and montane contexts quite different from Eurasia.
    1. Essential: 2 items
      1. Cattle Before Crops: The Beginnings of Food Production in Africa - Fiona Marshall and Elisabeth Hildebrand 2002

        Article 

      2. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Scarre, Christopher 2013

        Book  Chapters 9 and 10

    2. Recommended 11 items
      1. Mitochondrial Diversity and the Origins of African and European Cattle - Daniel G. Bradley, David E. MacHugh, Patrick Cunningham and Ronan T. Loftus 1996

        Article 

      2. Animals as domesticates: a world view through history - Juliet Clutton-Brock c2012

        Book 

  13. Lecture 12: Case studies (i) TheMiddle Niger (Kevin MacDonald) (ii) The Amazon (Manuel Arroyo-Kalin) 9 items
    Thought-provoking new discoveries await those who explore areas of the world far from the best-known core zones of early agriculture, discoveries that serve to recalibrate our models and expectations. The first of our case studies looks at the unique symbiotic subsistence system of the Middle Niger which has at its origins decisions by the ancient peoples of arid West Africa to occupy specialised fishing, pastoral and grain-farming niches. The second focuses looks at the Amazon basin, a vast region long resistant to exploration of its prehistory, and at the heart of debates about the potential of tropical habitats.
    1. The Middle Niger 3 items
      1. The peoples of the Middle Niger: the island of gold - Roderick J. McIntosh 1998

        Book  Chapter 4

      2. Accomodation - R. J. McIntosh

        Chapter  Chapter 3 Digitised reading

    2. The Amazon 6 items
      1. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens - Umberto Lombardo, Katherine Szabo, José M. Capriles, Jan-Hendrik May 2013-8-28

        Article 

  14. Lecture 13:Metallurgy and its Social Implications (Kevin MacDonald) 9 items
    For much of Asia and Europe between the spread of farming and emergence of early states lies the advent of metallurgy. This lecture examines the extent to which Copper and Bronze metallurgy triggered fundamental economic, social and cultural changes. Likewise, long-distance movements of materials and objects had been one of the hallmarks of modern human behaviour since the Upper Palaeolithic, and continued through the transition to farming despite increasing sedentism. With metals as a commodity evidence indicates that such movements invloved growing use for social prestige and profit-tinged trade. Such interactions by land and sea accompanied emergent social complexity in many parts of the world.
    1. Essential: 2 items
      1. Introduction: The Beginnings of Metallurgy in Global Perspective - Christopher P. Thornton and Benjamin W. Roberts 2009

        Article 

    2. Recommended 7 items
      1. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value - A Appadurai

        Chapter 

      2. Metallurgy in Ancient Eastern Asia: Retrospect and Prospects - Katheryn M. Linduff, Jianjun Mei 2009-9

        Article 

      3. On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe - Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar 11/2010

        Article 

      4. Development of metallurgy in Eurasia. - Benjamin W. Roberts, C. P. Thornton, V. Pigott 2009

        Article 

  15. Lecture 14: Early Complex Societies and Urbanism (Kevin MacDonald) 11 items
    The combined trajectories outlined over the previous lectures encouraged the formation of ever larger-scale and in many senses more 'complex' societies, focused on towns or cities at the centres of early states or, later, empires - first in Mesopotamia and Egypt but soon much more widely. The emergence, spread and differentiation of such entities is one of the key issues for later prehistory. This lecture provides an introduction to their definition and interpretation. Changing approaches are reviewed, and the nature of 'the state' and major theories as to its origins outlined. This lecture introduces several concepts and perspectives that will be drawn upon throughout the rest of the course.
    1. Essential 2 items
      1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2013

        Book  Chapter 5, especially pp193-199

    2. Recommended 9 items
      1. Archaeologies of complexity - Robert Chapman 2003

        Book 

      2. Beyond chiefdoms: pathways to complexity in Africa - Susan Keech McIntosh 1999

        Book 

      3. Chiefdoms and other archaeological delusions - Timothy R. Pauketat c2007

        Book 

      4. Understanding early civilizations: a comparative study - Bruce G. Trigger c2003

        Book  Chapters 1-4

      5. Understanding early civilizations: a comparative study - Bruce G. Trigger c2003

        Book  Chapters 1-4

  16. Lecture 15: 'Civilization': Mestopotamia and Dynastic Egypt (David Wengrow) 8 items
    What do we mean by the concept of 'civilisation''? And why are Egypt and Mesopotamia so often cited as the first examples? This lecture will provide a brief overview and comparison of these two regions - where the world's first cities, states, and systems of writing emerged - highlighting some key similarities and differences between them. It will also examine some possible reasons for their precocious development between the fifth and the third millennia BC, and their place within the wider world of Africa, Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean.
    1. Essential: 2 items
      1. What makes civilization?: the ancient Near East and the future of the West - D. Wengrow 2010

        Book  Introduction: ' A Clash of Civilisations?), and Chapters 5 ' Origin of Cities' and 8 ' The Labours of Kingship')

      2. Try to read these chapters alongside Roaf's (1990) Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia (reference below) and Baines & Malek (200) Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt, which provide distribution maps and illustrations of the main types of material culture.

    2. Recommended 6 items
      1. Cultural atlas of Ancient Egypt - John Baines, Jaromír Málek 2000

        Book 

      2. Introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt - Kathryn A. Bard 2007

        Book 

      3. Cultural atlas of Mesopotamia and the ancient Near East - Michael Roaf 2004

        Book  pp 18-78

      4. Early Mesopotamia: society and economy at the dawn of history - J. N. Postgate c1994

        Book 

  17. Lecture 16: Case studies (i) Exploring the First Global Village: IOA Fieldwork in Iraqi Kurdistan ( David Wengrow) (ii) Local Worlds beyond the Pyramids (Richard Bussmann) 8 items
    Iraqi Kurdistan The Institute of Archaeology is currently conducting excavations in the Shahrizor Plain of Iraqi Kurdistan. Our work there focuses on two adjacent prehistoric sites, spanning the period in which the world's first cities emerged against a long backdrop of Neolithic village life int he Middle East. this Case Study will briefly introduce the project, its aims, and a few of the results so far. It will also consider some the practical challenges of establishing a fieldwork in project in the contemporary Middle East, and the variety fo methods used in the field to retrieve archaeological data'
    1. An Image of Complexity: The Burnt Village at Late Neolithic Sabi Abyad, Syria - Peter M. M. G. Akkermans and Marc Verhoeven 1995

      Article 

    2. What makes civilization?: the ancient Near East and the future of the West - D. Wengrow 2010

      Book  The (First) Global Village - pp.54-65

    3. Egypt 4 items
      Egyptian pyramids and temples reflect the emergence of high culture typical of early civilizations. The focus of Pharaonic monuments is on kingship and shapes our perception of ancient Egypt. This session explores life in ancient Egypt beyond pyramids. It will examine what social complexity meant for local communities and how the Pharaonic state was embedded in the territory it claimed to adminster.
      1. Projekte - www.dainst.org

        Webpage  Project website of the German Archaeological Institute in English, English excavation reports of the last 8 years at the bottom.

      2. http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ai1708

      3. The dynamics of culture

        Chapter  E Book

  18. Lecture 17: Bronze Age Mediterrranean (Todd Whitelaw) 14 items
    The Near East, Egypt and eastern Mediterranean constituted an extended zone of complex, interacting urban states during the 2nd millennium BC, the later Bronze Age in this region. This lecture notes ongoing changes in these core areas, but particularly explores their interaction with neighbouring regions, most of which became structured around centralised, palace-based economies. notably in the Levant, Anatolia and the Aegean (The latter in the form of Minoan and Mycenaean societies). Increasingly effective maritime connections le to the westward expansion of this network as far as Italy, with local connections beyond. Traditionally approached as the diffusion of civilisation from the Near East to Europe, current models are more dynamic and stress networks of active player, each with their own motivations.
    1. Essential 2 items
      1. The Mediterranean and its hinterland - C Broodbank

        Chapter  Digitised reading

    2. Recommended 11 items
      1. The Phoenicians and the West: politics, colonies and trade - María Eugenia Aubet c2001

        Book 

      2. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2013

        Book  Chapter 13, especially pp. 472-498

      3. A history of the ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC - Marc Van de Mieroop c2004

        Book 

      4. Greece in the making, 1200-479 BC - Robin Osborne 2009

        Book 

      5. The neolithic settlement of Knossos in Crete: new evidence for the early occupation of Crete and the Aegean islands - Nicholas Efstratiou, Alexandra Karetsou, Maria Ntinou 2013

        Book 

    3. What makes civilization?: the ancient Near East and the future of the West - Wengrow, D. 2010

      Book  Digitised reading

  19. Lecture 18: Case studies (i)Knossos on Crete (Todd Whitelaw)(ii) Bronze Age Connections (Andy Bevan) 6 items
    Knosses in Crete is one of one of the most famous urban centres of antiquity, and provides an index of Mediterranean development over 8,000 years, from its foundation as one of the earliest Neolithic village in Europe, to become the largest centre of the Minoan civilisation, and an early Classical city-state. The lecture demonstrates how we can use new fieldwork to re-interpret over a century of intensive archaeological investigation.
    1. Knossos on Crete 2 items
      1. Archaeological survey of the Knossos area - Sinclair Hood, Neil Roberts, David Smyth, British School at Athens 1981

        Book 

      2. Knossos: a labyrinth of history: papers presented in honour of Sinclair Hood - R. D. G. Evely, Nicoletta Momigliano, Sinclair Hood, Helen Hughes-Brock 1994

        Book 

    2. Bronze Age Connections 4 items
      1. The Great Powers Club - M Liverani

        Chapter 

  20. Lecture 19: Stonehenge and Neolithic/Bronze Age Britain (Mike Parker Pearson) 7 items
    Stonehenge was built in several stages between 3000 BC and 1500 BC, during the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. It is the outstanding example of a group of monuments found across Britain that were built as ditched enclosures, relatively isolated from the Continent and from innovations such as metallurgy. The adoption of copper and gold accompanied major social changes that led to the demise of monument-building on this massive scale. Many people think that Stonehenge was built by aliens. This lecture will explore the actual reasons why it was built.
    1. Essential: 2 items
      1. The archaeology of Britain: an introduction from earliest times to the twenty-first century - John Hunter, Ian Ralston 2009

        Book 

      2. Bronze Age Britain - Michael Parker Pearson, Michael Parker Pearson 2005

        Book 

    2. Recommended: 5 items
      1. Prehistoric Britain - Timothy Darvill 1996

        Book  Chapter 5 (pp.131-187)

      2. Stonehenge: exploring the greatest Stone Age mystery - Michael Parker Pearson, Stonehenge Riverside Project (England) 2012

        Book 

      3. Prehistoric Britain - Timothy Darvill 1996

        Book  Chapters 6&8

  21. Lecture 20: The World between 2000 and 1500 BC (Kevin MacDonald) 0 items
    This final lecture of the first half of the 1-cu version of the course summarises and reflects on the unfolding of global prehistory so far, and offers a broad comparative survey of conditions and developments around the planet by roughly the end ofhte 3rd millennium BC. It intends to lay the foundations for a debate about the main patterns and processes witnessed to date. There is no additional reading, but a familiarity with the overall chronologies and mapping of such phenomena will expected. Enjoy the lecture - no readings!
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