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This list relates to the academic year Academic Year 2014/15 which ended on 01/07/2015
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  1. 1.1. BASIC TEXTS 9 items
    There is no single textbook that covers the syllabus for this course. The following are recommended for introductions to the course's main component topics. The location of books and articles are indicated below in many cases. Where not indicated, you should use the following search engines to locate copies: * For books: UCL Library's Explore service, http://tinyurl.com/uclibrary * For articles: Google Scholar.google.com (you may need to be located in the ucl.ac.uk domain to get access to subscription-only materials)
    1. Climate history: 2 items
      1. Reconstructing Quaternary environments - J. J. Lowe, M. J. C. Walker 1997

        Book 

    2. Human Evolution 2 items
      1. Reconstructing human origins: a modern synthesis - Conroy, Glenn C., Pontzer, Herman c2012

        Book 

    3. Environmental archaeology 3 items
      1. Environmental archaeology: principles and methods - T. P. O'Connor, John G. Evans, John G. Evans c2005

        Book 

      2. Archaeology: theories, methods and practice - Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn 2008

        Book  Chapters 2,6,and 7

    4. Dating 1 item
      1. Archaeology: theories, methods and practice - Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn 2008

        Book  Chapter 4

    5. Gene-culture Coevolution, The Anthropocene 1 item
      1. Archaeology: theories, methods and practice - Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn 2008

        Book  p 440, 462-463

  2. Lectures 1&2 Climate and Climate Change ( Martin Bridge) 3 items
    The lecture will address what we man by climate and climate change. It will look at the major mechanism behind climate changes and some of the evidence available for past changes. different temporal scales will be considered.
    1. Essential Reading: 2 items
      1. Late Quaternary environmental change: physical and human perspectives - Martin Bell, M. J. C. Walker 1992

        Book  Chapters 1, 2, 3

      2. Reconstructing Quaternary environments - J. J. Lowe, M. J. C. Walker 1997

        Book  Chapters 1,7 and section 4.10

    2. Other Reading Suggestion 1 item
      1. The Holocene: an environmental history - Neil Roberts 1998

        Book  Chapter 1,3

  3. Lectures 3 & 4 ( 2 hours ): The Environmental Background to Human Evolution - ( Matt Pope) 11 items
    The human evolutionary journey has taken place against the background of profound environmental change and transformation. Understanding aspects of human evolution such as tool use,brain development, and dietary change requires examining how environmental change provided both pressures and opportunities for ancient populations. In this lecture we will examine how global climate change during the Pleistocene epoch (c. 2.5 - 0.01 Million years) affected past hominid niches, underpinned new behavioural and anatomical adaptations, and punctuated processes of hominid dispersal ad diversification.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. The complete world of human evolution - Chris Stringer, Peter Andrews c2005

        Book  pp.50-51

      2. Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology - BERNARD WOOD, BRIAN G. RICHMOND 07/2000

        Article 

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 8 items
      1. The human career: human biological and cultural origins - Richard G. Klein 2009

        Book 

      2. From Lucy to language - Donald C. Johanson, Blake Edgar c1996

        Book 

      3. A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity - Hillard Kaplan, Kim Hill, Jane Lancaster, A. Magdalena Hurtado 2000

        Article 

  4. Lecture 5: People and plants - domestication and beyond ( Chris Stevens) 8 items
    This lecture will explore some of the ways in which human-plant interactions shaped human diet, evolution and history. Our evolutionary trajectory includes more than 25 million years as primarily herbivorous anthropoid primates and is characterised by an ever-expanding dietary diversity. With the hominin/ape split and again the emergence of Homo. dietary shifts towards the increasing consumption of 'high quality' (nutrient dense) foods raised unprecedented challenges, such as the dangers of scavenging/hunting, of inadvertently ingesting plant toxins, and a need to overcome other chemical and physical properties of plants that limited the accessibility of energy (Cal/kj) and other critical nutrients. Innovations in food processing technology and skills provided the means for providing safer, more digestible plant foods, and undoubtedly become a critical a factor in dietary selection decisions. By the late Pleistocene, expansions in the natural distributions of carbohydrate-rich plants and continuing improvements in human technological and ecological skills and knowledge, ( e.g.food preservation) made feasible the mass-harvesting and storage of seasonally-available wild edible plants, and in turn stimulated the cultivation and subsequent domestication of numerous species. This lecture will summarize the kinds of plant evidence that may be recovered archaeologically and highlight how archaeobotany can contribute to understanding cultural adaptation, the beginnings of agriculture and social organization of food production, and storage, and how food pattern can be related to cultural identity.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Archaeobotany - D. Q. Fuller, L. Lucas

        Chapter Essential ENCYCLOPEDIA SET HELD AT ISSUE DESK. REFERENCE USE IN THE LIBRARY ONLY; Digitised Reading

      2. PLANT DOMESTICATION - Deborah M. Pearsall

        Chapter Essential E-BOOK

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 5 items
      1. MACROREMAINS ANALYSIS - Gary W. Crawford

        Chapter 

      2. Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives - Tim Denham, José Iriarte, Luc Vrydaghs, World Archaeological Congress c2007

        Book 

  5. Lecture 6: Environmental reconstruction and human ecology (Ken Thomas) 7 items
    We will consider issues in human ecology and environmental reconstruction from a broadly based theoretical perspective, to complement the specialist approaches (such as the study of animal remains and plant remains) introduced elsewhere in this course. Topics to be discussed include: the aims and objectives of environmental archaeology; environment and subsistence; environmental reconstruction at various scales (of space, time and complexity) and how the contexts from which the data are obtained and the properties reconstructions. The discussion will be based on examples of both on-site and off-site archaeological studies.
    1. Essential reading: 2 items
      1. Environmental archaeology: principles and methods - T. P. O'Connor, John G. Evans, John G. Evans c2005

        Book  Chapters 2,3 & 4

      2. Archaeology: theories, methods and practice - Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn 2012

        Book  Chapter 6 (note: chapter 6 in the third and fourth editions are virtually identical)

    2. Other reading suggestions: 5 items
      1. Late Quaternary environmental change: physical and human perspectives - Martin Bell, M. J. C. Walker 1992

        Book  Chapter 4, especially sections 4.1, 4.2,4.4,4.5,4.7,4.12 & 4.14

      2. Environmental archaeology: principles and practice - Dena Ferran Dincauze 2000

        Book  Chapters 1 & 2

      3. Reconstructing Quaternary environments - J. J. Lowe, M. J. C. Walker 1997

        Book  Chapter 4, especially sections 4.1,4.2,4.4,4.5,4.7,4.12,& 4.14

      4. Environmental archaeology: principles and methods - T. P. O'Connor, John G. Evans, John G. Evans c2005

        Book  Chapter 5 (A crannog and its environment)

      5. The holocene: an environmental history - Neil Roberts 2014

        Book  Chapters 4 (Early Holocene Adaptations), 5 (The First Farmers) & 6 ( The Taming of Nature)

  6. Lecture 7: Isotapes in Archaeololgy (Elizabeth Henton) 7 items
    This lecture is an introduction to the use of stable isotope studies for reconstructing ancient environments, diet and provenance. We will examine what isotopes are; what are the basic principles that underlie their behaviour; the ways in which stable isotopes ratios are measured; the types of materials that can be sampled in isotopic studies; and some of the main uses in archaeology of Stontium, Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen stable isotopes.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Archaeology: theories, methods and practice - Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn 1996

        Book  PP 347-350

      2. Palaeodiet and beyond: stable isotopes in bioarchaeology - Amy Bogaard, Alan K. Outram 08/2013

        Article 

      3. Zooarchaeology - Elizabeth Jean Reitz, Elizabeth S. Wing 2008

        Book  pp 82-87

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 4 items
  7. Lecture 8.The Organic Record (Ulrike Sommer) 8 items
    Plants are not only the sources of food and fodder, but also provide string, clothing, building material for houses, heating, lighting, furniture, vessels, fragrances, poisons and much more. Unfortunately, they rarely leave traces. But plants are part of an economic and social system of land-use, and the entanglement of specific tasks may indicate where missing evidence can be located. Ultimately based on an Anatolian tradition of agriculture, the people of the Linearbandkeramik culture of Central Europe lived in wooden longhouses, cultivated plants in small gardens and collected other resources from the woodlands around them. They also used the hills away from the settlements for mining and grazing their stock and maintained long-distance trading connections to obtain flint, ground-stone and shells for ornaments. |In the lecture, I am going to look how the early Neolithic societies of central Europe may have used their environment to fulfil their basic needs, and how archaeologists can trace this - or sometimes not.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Neolithic farming in Central Europe: an archaeobotanical study of crop husbandry practices - Amy Bogaard 2004

        Book  Chapter 7, Conclusions: Neolithic Farming in Central Europe, pp 154-170

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 5 items
      1. The first farmers of central Europe: diversity in LBK lifeways - Penny Bickle, A. W. R. Whittle c2013

        Book  Chapter 9.2

      2. Bast before wool: the first textiles. - A. Rast-Eicher

        Chapter 

  8. Lecture 9: Geoarchaeology (Manuel Arroyo-Kalin) 7 items
    Geoarchaeology uses earth science methods to answer questions about ancient lifeways, economies and human land relationships through time. It operates on the large scale to reconstruct past climatic conditions and regional landscape changes, the medium scale to recognise transformations of microenvironments close to the archaeological site, and on the small scale of on-site studies to understand site formation processes, to aid identification of activities and use of space at the site, as well as to study the geological resources found on-site.
    1. Essential Reading: 2 items
      1. Archaeology as human ecology: method and theory for a contextual approach - Karl W. Butzer 1982

        Book  Chapter 3-9

      2. Geoarchaeology: the earth-science approach to archaeological interpretation - George Robert Rapp, Christopher L. Hill c1998

        Book  Chapters. 1 and 2

    2. Other Reading 5 items
      1. Late Quaternary environmental change: physical and human perspectives - Martin Bell, M. J. C. Walker 1992

        Book  pp 29-37

      2. Basic Principles of Sedimentology and Soils Science - D.F. Dincauze

        Chapter  Digitised reading

      3. Geoarchaeology in action: studies in soil micromorphology and landscape evolution - C. A. I. French 2003

        Book  Chapters 1 and 2

      4. Principles of geoarchaeology: a North American perspective - Michael R. Waters c1992

        Book  Chapters 1 and 2

      5. Archaeological landscapes of the Near East - T. J. Wilkinson c2003

        Book 

  9. Lecture 10: Radiocarbon Dating (Martin Bridge) * 4 items
    The basic principles behind dendrochronology will be discussed along with the broad-brush environmental information that can be gained from multi-centennial chronologies. The basics of radiocarbon dating, including calibration using dendrochronologically dated material will also be presented.
    1. Essential Reading: 2 items
      1. Chronometric dating in archaeology - R. E. Taylor, M. J. Aitken c1997

        Book 

    2. Other Reading Suggestions: 2 items
      1. 2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility - U. Buntgen, W. Tegel, K. Nicolussi, M. McCormick 04/02/2011

        Article 

      2. Radiocarbon dating - Sheridan Bowman, British Museum 1990

        Book 

  10. Lecture 11: Zooarchaeology: animals from prey to domesticate (Louise Martin) 10 items
    This lecture focuses on how the study of animal remains - zooarchaeology - has contributed to a wide array of archaeological methods have provided key information to the interpretation of past human subsistence practices, hunting strategies, animal domestication site seasonality, and animal-based industries. The case-studies demonstrate how animal bone assemblages provide key information to the interpretation not only of sites, but also social groups and their interactions.
    1. Essential Reading: 2 items
      1. The archaeology of animals - Simon J. M. Davis 2002

        Book  Chapters 1,3 and 4,5 if time. * note, some of the data/evidence is now out of date but this is till an excellent and informative read for research questions and evidence.

      2. The archaeology of animal bones - T. P. O'Connor 2000

        Book  Chapters 1-3 and more if time

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 8 items
      1. A barrow full of cattle skulls - Simon Davis, Sebastian Payne 2015

        Article 

      2. Taphonomy of ungulate ribs and the consumption of meat and bone by 1.2-million-year-old hominins at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania - Travis Rayne Pickering, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Jason L. Heaton, José Yravedra 02/2013

        Article 

      3. Social zooarchaeology: humans and animals in prehistory - Nerissa Russell 2012

        Book  *An excellent review and discussion of social and anthropological approaches to animal bone archaeology

      4. Bison kills and bone counts: decision making by ancient hunters - John D. Speth 1983

        Book  160-170 and Introduction

  11. Lecture 12: Pastoral Landscapes (Louise Martin) 8 items
    Drawing on the background covered in the previous lecture, the second lecture examines how pastoral landscapes are constituted over time and how archaeology tackles the study of pastoralism.
    1. Essential Reading: 2 items
      1. Nomads in archaeology - Roger Cribb 1991

        Book 

      2. Nomads and the outside world - Anatoly M. Khazanov 1984

        Book  Everything you ever wanted to know about pastoralism.... and more.

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 6 items
      1. Shepherds and sediments: Geo-ethnoarchaeology of pastoral sites - Jacques E Brochier, Paola Villa, Mario Giacomarra, Antonio Tagliacozzo 1992-3

        Article 

  12. Lecture 13: The Historical Ecology of Amazonia (Manuel Arroyo-Kalin) 9 items
    The Amazon basin has traditionally been considered as a rainforest and mega-biodiverse landscape that was, until recently, largely unmodified by humans. Interdisciplinary research over the last four decades, however, has marshalled significant evidence that increasingly questions this account. From this scholarship Amazonia emerges as a distinctive landscape that has been shaped by both natural and human agencies over the course of millennia. This lecture will examine the multiple approaches and datasets used to discuss how human societies lastingly modified the landscape of Amazonia in pre-Columbian times.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Amazonian Dark Earths, Geoarchaeology - M. Arroyo-Kalin

        Chapter Essential ENCYCLOPEDIA SET HELD AT ISSUE DESK. REFERENCE USE IN THE LIBRARY ONLY; Digitised Reading

      2. Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest or Cultural Parkland? - M. J. Heckenberger 19/09/2003

        Article Essential

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 6 items
      1. Time and complexity in historical ecology: studies in the neotropical lowlands - William L. Balée, Clark L. Erickson, Symposium on Neotropical Historical Ecology c2006

        Book 

      2. Raised fields in the Bolivian Amazonia: a prehistoric green revolution or a flood risk mitigation strategy? - Umberto Lombardo, Elisa Canal-Beeby, Seraina Fehr, Heinz Veit 2011-3

        Article 

      3. Dark earths and the human built landscape in Amazonia: a widespread pattern of anthrosol formation - Morgan J. Schmidt, Anne Rapp Py-Daniel, Claide de Paula Moraes, Raoni B.M. Valle 02/2014

        Article 

  13. Lecture 14: Ecological diverstiy and long-term land use int he Neolithic China (Yijie Zhuang) 6 items
    This lecture will explore diversified environmental conditions in different regions of China and examine how this ecological diversity played an important role in agricultural development and long-term land use. Our understanding of Neolithic landscape is also deeply shaped by this.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Archaeology: theories, methods and practice - Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn 2004

        Book  Chapters 6 and 7

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 3 items
  14. Lecture 15: Archaeological landscapes of Antikythera (Andrew Bevan) 6 items
    The relationship between human beings and landscapes is a fundamental topic in archaeology, and there are many different methods by which we can address it. One major research strand involves the collection of large-amounts of relatively coarse-resolution information via surface (or 'field') survey. Over the past forty years however, landscape survey projects have become dramatically more sophisticated in terms of both the way they collect archaeological evidence and dramatically more multidisciplinary in terms of the different kinds of anthropological and scientific methods they use. As an example of bother the potential and the challenges of such landscape-scale investigations, we will look at the tiny Greek island of Antikythera. This island is perhaps the only one in the world that has been wholly covered by an intensive landscape survey. The results suggest some sharp highs and lows in human population on the island over the last 7000 years, with periods of complete abandonment and recolonisation, as well as the varied impact of refugees, hunters, political exiles, hermits and pirates.
    1. Essential Reading: 2 items
      1. The fragile communities of Antikythera - Andrew Bevan, James Conolly, Aris Tsaravopoulos 02/10/2006

        Article 

      2. Archaeology beyond the site:regional survey and its future - J.F. Cherry

        Chapter  Digitised reading

    2. Other Reading Suggestions 4 items
      1. Archaeological survey - E. B. Banning c2002

        Book 

      2. Experiments in the collection and analysis of archaeological survey data: the east Hampshire survey - Stephen Shennan, Julie Gardiner, Martin Oake, University of Sheffield 1985

        Book 

  15. Lecture 16: Archaeological engagement with global environmental change (Jago Cooper) 15 items
    Human induced climatic and environmental change represents perhaps the greatest threat to the successful long-term development of our species. Through a discussion of past human ecodynamics, this lecture will evaluate whether archaeologists can contribute to debates and policy forums discussing preparations for the impacts of modern day climate variability and environmental change. The theoretical implications for applying lessons from long-term perspectives of human-climate-environment relationship will critically explored through the presentation of interdisciplinary case studies from the Global Human Ecodynamics Alliance (www.gheahome.org) and Integrated History and Futures of Peoples on Eary (www.ihopenet.org) research communities. Students will have the opportunity to reflect upon the validity and merit of archaeologists' role in the development of national and international mitigation strategies in the face of global environmental change.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjunctures in Norse Greenland - A. J. Dugmore, T. H. McGovern, O. Vesteinsson, J. Arneborg 06/03/2012

        Article 

      2. Synthesis Report: Summary for Policy Makers - The Core Writing Team, Rajendra K. Pachauri, Leo Meyer 2014

        Document 

    2. Other Reading Suggestions: 12 items
      1. The politics of climate change - Anthony Giddens 2009

        Book 

      2. Human agency, climate change, and culture: an archaeological perspective - F.A. Hassan

        Chapter 

      3. Climate history and human action - R.J Mcintosh, J.A. Tainter, S.K. Mcintosh

        Chapter 

      4. Landscapes of Settlement in Northern Iceland: Historical Ecology of Human Impact and Climate Fluctuation on the Millennial Scale - Thomas H. McGovern, Orri Vésteinsson, Adolf Fridriksson, Mike Church, Ian Lawson, Ian A. Simpson, Arni Einarsson, Andy Dugmore, Gordon Cook, Sophia Perdikaris, Kevin J. Edwards, Amanda M. Thomson, W. Paul Adderley, Anthony Newton, Gavin Lucas, Ragnar Edvardsson, Oscar Aldred and Elaine Dunbar 2007

        Article 

      5. Human impact on ancient environments - Charles L. Redman c1999

        Book 

      6. A safe operating space for humanity - Johan Rockström, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson 2009-9-24

        Article 

  16. Lecture 17: Gene-culture coevolution, Human niche construction. (Manuel 6 items
    We shall consider the concepts of gene-culture coevolution and human niche construction, and ask how far humans have become constructors of their own niche.
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
      1. Gene-culture coevolution and human diet - O Arjamaa, T Vuorisalo

        Article 

    2. Other Reading Suggestions: 3 items
      1. How long have adult humans been consuming milk? - Pascale Gerbault, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Richard P. Evershed, Mark G. Thomas 12/2013

        Article 

      2. Niche Construction Theory and Archaeology - Kevin N. Laland and Michael J. O'Brien 2010

        Article 

      3. Does evolutionary theory need a rethink? - Kevin Laland, Tobias Uller, Marc Feldman, Kim Sterelny 2014-10-8

        Article 

  17. Lecture 18: The Anthropocene (Manuel Arroyo-Kalin) 6 items
    We will examine the case for formally recognizing a recent and ongoing geological epoch, the 'Anthropocene', which is characterized by major human impacts on global ecosystems. What role does archaeology play in current understanding of the Anthropocene?
    1. Essential Reading: 3 items
    2. Other Reading Suggestions 3 items
      1. The New World of the Anthropocene - Jan Zalasiewicz*, Mark Williams, Will Steffen, Paul Crutzen 04/2010

        Article 

  18. Lecture 19. Course summary and review - (Manuel Arroyo-Kalin) 1 item
    1. Please come along with any questions, or let know ahead of time if you have any requests for particular ideas/information to be reviewed in this session.

  19. Lecture 20. Examination preparation - (Manuel Arroyo-Kalin) 0 items
  20. APPENDIX C 79 items
    1. Abu Hureyra (Syria) 8 items
      1. Start here: 1 item
        1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

          Book  Chapter 6: p.203-204, 212-213,231

      2. The Tangled Roots of Agriculture - M. Balter 22/01/2010

        Article 

      3. Village on the Euphrates: from foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra - A. M. T. Moore, Gordon C. Hillman, A. J. Legge, J. Huxtable 2000

        Book 

      4. New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates - Hillman, GHedges, RMoore, AColledge, SPettitt, P 2001

        Article 

    2. Afar (Hadar, Gona ) (Ethiopia) 1 item
      1. Start here: 1 item
        1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

          Book  p 59,61,70

    3. Paleoenvironments of the earliest stone toolmakers, Gona, Ethiopia - Jay Quade, Naomi Levin, Sileshi Semaw, Dietrich Stout 2004

      Article 

    4. Geological and palaeontological background of Hadar hominid site, Afar, Ethiopia - M. Taieb, D. C. Johanson, Y. Coppens, J. L. Aronson 1976-3-25

      Article 

    5. Amazonian archaeological landscapes (Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Guyana) 9 items
      1. Start here: 1 item
        1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

          Book  P 346-347, Chapter 17, P 668-677

      2. Amazonian Dark Earths, Geoarchaeology - M. Arroyo-Kalin

        Chapter  Digitised Reading

      3. Time and complexity in historical ecology: studies in the neotropical lowlands - William L. Balée, Clark L. Erickson, Symposium on Neotropical Historical Ecology c2006

        Book 

      4. Raised fields in the Bolivian Amazonia: a prehistoric green revolution or a flood risk mitigation strategy? - Umberto Lombardo, Elisa Canal-Beeby, Seraina Fehr, Heinz Veit 2011-3

        Article 

      5. Dark earths and the human built landscape in Amazonia: a widespread pattern of anthrosol formation - Morgan J. Schmidt, Anne Rapp Py-Daniel, Claide de Paula Moraes, Raoni B.M. Valle 02/2014

        Article 

    6. Beeches Pit (England) 53 items
      1. Riparian landscapes and human habitat preferences during the Hoxnian (MIS 11) Interglacial - Nick Ashton, Simon G. Lewis, Simon Parfitt, Mark White 07/2006

        Article 

      2. Humans in the Hoxnian: habitat, context and fire use at Beeches Pit, West Stow, Suffolk, UK - R. C. Preece, J. A. J. Gowlett, S. A. Parfitt, D. R. Bridgland 07/2006

        Article 

      3. Catalhoyuk (Turkey) 10 items
        1. Start here: 1 item
          1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

            Book  Chapter: p. 216-217, 222-223, 231-232

        2. Macro-botanical evidence for plant use at Neolithic Çatalhöyük south-central Anatolia, Turkey - Andrew Fairbairn, Eleni Asouti, Julie Near, Danièle Martinoli 2002-6-1

          Article 

        3. Cattle Domestication at Catalhoyuk Revisited - Nerissa Russell, Louise Martin, Hijlke Buitenhuis 12/2005

          Article 

        4. Plants and Animals Together - Katheryn C. Twiss, Amy Bogaard, Michael Charles, Jennifer Henecke 12/2009

          Article 

      4. Chaco Canyon (USA) 8 items
        1. Start here: 1 item
          1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

            Book  P.698-700

        2. Holocene Vegetation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico - J. L. BETANCOURT, T. R. VAN DEVENDER 06/11/1981

          Article 

        3. The archaeology of Chaco Canyon: an eleventh-century Pueblo regional center - Lekson, Stephen H. 2006

          Book 

      5. Eastern China archaeological landscapes (China) 7 items
        1. Start here: 1 item
          1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

            Book  Chapter 7 p 235-247

        2. Dry or humid? Mid-Holocene humidity changes in arid and semi-arid China - Cheng-Bang An, Zhao-Dong Feng, Loukas Barton 2006-2

          Article 

        3. Agricultural Origins and the Isotopic Identity of Domestication in Northern China - Loukas Barton, Seth D. Newsome, Fa-Hu Chen, Hui Wang, Thomas P. Guilderson, Robert L. Bettinger and Frank Hole 2009

          Article 

      6. Guila Naquitz (Mexico) 7 items
        1. Start here: 1 item
          1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

            Book  Chapter 9 p 312-316

        2. What is the origin of the common bean? - Lawrence Kaplan 1981-4

          Article 

      7. Mesopotamian archaeological landscapes ( Middle East) 7 items
        1. Start here: 1 item
          1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

            Book  Chapter 12 p 433-454

        2. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments - David Kaniewski, Elise Van Campo, Christophe Morhange, Joël Guiot 18/12/2013

          Article 

        3. Early Mesopotamia: society and economy at the dawn of history - J. N. Postgate c1994

          Book  See pages 3-21

        4. Archaeological landscapes of the Near East - T. J. Wilkinson c2003

          Book 

        5. The Structure and Dynamics of Dry-Farming States in Upper Mesopotamia [and Comments and Reply] - T. J. Wilkinson, John Bintliff, Hans H. Curvers, Paul Halstead, Phillip L. Kohl, Mario Liverani, Joy McCorriston, Joan Oates, Glenn M. Schwartz, Ingolf Thuesen, Harvey Weiss and Marie-Agnes Courty 1994

          Article 

      8. Nabta Playa (Egypt) 8 items
        1. Start here: 1 item
          1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

            Book  p 361-362

        2. Saharan exploitation of plants 8,000 years BP - Fred Wendorf, Angela E. Close, Romuald Schild, Krystyna Wasylikowa 22/10/1992

          Article 

        3. Nabta Playa and Its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory - Fred Wendorf, Romuald Schild 1998-6

          Article 

        4. Holocene settlement of the Egyptian Sahara - Fred Wendorf, Romuald Schild, Kit Nelson c2001-

          Book 

  21. Essay Reading: Essay 2- Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) 8 items
    1. Start here: 1 item
      1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

        Book  Chapter 2: p 61-83

    2. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of Olduvai Bed-I (Pleistocene, Tanzania) - Y. Fernández-Jalvo, C. Denys, P. Andrews, T. Williams 1998-2

      Article 

  22. Southwest Aegean archaeological landscapes (Greece) 9 items
    1. Start here: 1 item
      1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

        Book  Chapter 11: p 393-396, 399-402

    2. The nature of Mediterranean Europe: an ecological history - A. T. Grove, Oliver Rackham 2001

      Book 

    3. Landscape and land use in postglacial Greece - Paul Halstead, Charles Frederick c2000

      Book 

    4. Vegetation recolonisation of abandoned agricultural terraces on Antikythera, Greece - Carol Palmer, Sue Colledge, Andrew Bevan, James Conolly 04/2010

      Article 

    5. The making of the Cretan landscape - Oliver Rackham, Jennifer Alice Moody c1996

      Book 

  23. Essay Reading: Swartkrans (South Africa) 8 items
    1. Start here: 1 item
      1. The human past: world prehistory & the development of human societies - Christopher Scarre 2009

        Book  Chapter 2: p 73,90

    2. Swartkrans: a cave's chronicle of early man - Brain, C. K., Transvaal Museum 2004

      Book 

    3. Contemporary flowstone development links early hominin bearing cave deposits in South Africa - Robyn Pickering, Jan D. Kramers, Philip John Hancox, Darryl J. de Ruiter 2011-6

      Article 

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