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  1. ANTH0076 Course Information 5 items
    1. Tutor details 1 item
      1. Dr Emily Woodhouse

        Anthropology Department, Room 121

        e.woodhouse@ucl.ac.uk

        Office hours: Wednesdays 11-12; Fridays 3-4pm

    2. Teaching schedule 1 item
      1. Lectures: Tuesdays 11am-1pm, Taviton (16) 432

        Tutorials: Fridays 10am, 11am, 1pm, 2pm - check your timetable for the room

    3. Course objectives 1 item
      1.  

        The course aims to bring a multi-disciplinary perspective to social-ecological systems, resource use practices, and nature conservation problems and practice. The course is theoretically grounded in political ecology but will draw upon a diverse range of literature to understand environmental behaviour and the socio-political contexts which shape the problems conservation aims to solve, and the way it is practiced. Students will gain an understanding of a range of contemporary issues and debates including: how conservation aims should be defined and by who, the increasing marketisation of nature, social justice impacts of interventions, as well as specific problems such as the illegal wildlife hunting and emerging initiatives like biodiversity offsetting.

        Aims:

        • Introduce students to a multi-disciplinary approach, relevant theoretical frameworks and case studies, in order to critically examine human-ecosystem relationships and conservation problems
        • Provide students with awareness and understanding of key issues and developments in the practice and politics of conservation
        • Enable students to apply their theory and knowledge in order to analyse multi-dimensional environmental issues and engage in contemporary debates in conservation and sustainability

         

    4. Course schedule 1 item
      1. 1. Introduction: Human impacts on ecosystems & biodiversity

        2. Conservation: definitions, history and current practices

        3: Managing the commons & pastoralist systems

        4. Community-based conservation, poverty and justice

        5. Indigenous peoples & 'traditional ecological knowledge'

        READING WEEK

        6. Ecosystem services & the biodiversity economy

        7. Conservation conflict and decision-making

        8. Understanding & tackling illegal wildlife hunting

        9. The stakeholder negotiation exercise

    5. Readings 1 item
      1. All students are expected to normally read three papers or chapters each week ahead of the tutorial. This includes two 'essential readings' and one 'recommended' tutorial reading. Recommended readings should be shared out within the tutorial group in advance. Students should be ready to explain and discuss what they have read and how it helps to answer the questions listed for that tutorial.

        Further readings are either those referenced in the lecture or providing additional detail to the tutorial readings. Students may want to follow these up (especially those listed as 'recommended') if they have a particular interest in the topic and if they plan to answer a question on the topic in the exam.

  2. General literature 7 items
    Some relevant books that you may want to look at. Particular chapters are highlighted in specific weeks.
    1. Conservation: linking ecology, economics, and culture - Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Peter Coppolillo 2005

      Book  an multi-disciplinary text book linking social and natural sciences - with the practical aim of improving conservation

    2. Environmental anthropology: a historical reader - Michael Dove, Carol Carpenter 2008

      Book  The introduction provides a good overview of how environmental anthropology has changed

    3. Political ecology: a critical introduction - Paul Robbins 2012

      Book  an accessible intro to the expanding body of research that uses a political ecology lens

    4. Conservation biology for all - Navjot S. Sodhi, Paul R. Ehrlich 2009

      Book  Available online for free at: https://conbio.org/publications/free-textbook/ good short chapters on key topics in conservation - from a more natural science perspective

    5. Conservation is our government now: the politics of ecology in Papua New Guinea - Paige West 2006

      Book  a great ethnography about the politics of a conservation and development project

    6. The Big Conservation Lie - John Mbaria 15 Mar. 2017

      Book  a recent (and polemical) critique of the African conservation paradigm and its colonial roots

    7. Just conservation: biodiversity, wellbeing and sustainability - Adrian Martin 2017

      Book  Recent book putting forward a strong argument that biodiversity conservation should be informed by social justice approaches

  3. 1 Introduction: Human impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity 27 items
    After a general introduction to the course aims and approach, we will begin by taking a broad scale examination of humans as drivers of ecosystem change and biodiversity loss, from prehistory to the present day. We look at ways to understand and measure impact, and what the drivers of biodiversity loss are. Are the impacts on ecosystems and the climate so dramatic that we should consider ourselves in a new epoch – the Anthropocene? The theoretical perspective of political ecology will also be introduced.
    1. Tutorial readings 7 items
      Questions: How should we characterise and measure ecological degradation? What are some of the complexities involved? What is the evidence that the Earth is undergoing a 6th mass extinction? Is species extinction the best way to measure biodiversity loss? What is biodiversity and why is it important? What are some of the key drivers and processes involved in biodiversity loss and ecosystem change?
      1. Defaunation in the Anthropocene - R. Dirzo, H. S. Young, M. Galetti, G. Ceballos 25/07/2014

        Article Essential

      2. Political ecology: a critical introduction - Paul Robbins 2012 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Chapter 5: Challenges in Ecology

      3. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction - G. Ceballos, P. R. Ehrlich, A. D. Barnosky, A. Garcia 19/06/2015

        Article Recommended

      4. Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship - Georgina M. Mace, Ken Norris, Alastair H. Fitter 2012-1

        Article Recommended

      5. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being - Gretta T. Pecl, Miguel B. Araújo, Johann D. Bell, Julia Blanchard 31/03/2017

        Article Recommended

      6. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations - M. Lenzen, D. Moran, K. Kanemoto, B. Foran 2012-6

        Article Recommended

      7. A Cross-National Analysis of How Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss - TIM G. HOLLAND, GARRY D. PETERSON, ANDREW GONZALEZ 10/2009

        Article Recommended

    2. Further readings 20 items
      1. The human planet: how we created the anthropocene - Simon L. Lewis, Mark Maslin 2018

        Book Recommended

      2. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration - Will Steffen, Wendy Broadgate, Lisa Deutsch, Owen Gaffney 04/2015

        Article Recommended

      3. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis

        Document Recommended Biodiversity synthesis for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

      4. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change - C. Sandom, S. Faurby, B. Sandel, J.-C. Svenning 04/06/2014

        Article Recommended

      5. The biomass distribution on Earth - Yinon M. Bar-On, Rob Phillips, Ron Milo 19/06/2018

        Article 

      6. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities - Norman Myers, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca 2000-2-24

        Article 

      7. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? - Anthony D. Barnosky, Nicholas Matzke, Susumu Tomiya, Guinevere O. U. Wogan 2011-3-3

        Article 

      8. Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time - M. Vellend, L. Baeten, I. H. Myers-Smith, S. C. Elmendorf 26/11/2013

        Article 

  4. 2 Conservation: definitions, history and current practices 22 items
    This week we examine the question of what constitutes conservation by humans. We look at how conservation is affected by different understandings of what nature is, and how ecosystems work. Third, we trace the history of the modern conservation movement from its colonial roots and the preservation of wilderness, which continue to influence thought and practice today in the form of protected areas, to sustainable use, and broader ecosystem approaches and community-based conservation
    1. Tutorial readings 6 items
      Questions: What constitutes conservation? How is nature conceptualised by conservationists and how does that affect the practice of conservation? How have these ideas changed through time? Where are the main points of conflict? How has colonial history shaped conservation practice? How does acceptance of the Anthropocene affect ideas and practice of conservation? How can the different ideas of conservation be reconciled?
      1. Poachers to Partners - W. M. Adams

        Chapter Essential Digitised Reading

      2. What Is Conservation Science? - Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier 11/2012

        Article Recommended A mainstream contemporary view of the 'new conservation'

      3. The “New Conservation” - MICHAEL SOULÉ 10/2013

        Article Recommended Opinion piece arguing for 'traditional' conservation

      4. What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Biodiversity Conservation in the Anthropocene? - George Holmes 2015

        Article Recommended How is the anthropocene concept being used in conservation?

    2. Further readings 16 items
      1. Imposing wilderness: struggles over livelihood and nature preservation in Africa - Roderick P. Neumann c1998

        Book Recommended

      2. Whose conservation? - G. M. Mace 26/09/2014

        Article Recommended

      3. Half-Earth or Whole Earth? Radical ideas for conservation, and their implications - Bram Büscher, Robert Fletcher, Dan Brockington, Chris Sandbrook 07/2017

        Article Recommended

      4. Conservation and Subsistence in Small-Scale Societies - Eric Alden Smith, Mark Wishnie 21/10/2000

        Article Optional

      5. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services - Robert Costanza, Rudolf de Groot, Paul Sutton, Sander van der Ploeg 05/2014

        Article Optional

      6. What is conservation? - Chris Sandbrook 10/2015

        Article Optional

      7. Opinion: Why protect nature? Rethinking values and the environment - Kai M. A. Chan, Patricia Balvanera, Karina Benessaiah, Mollie Chapman 09/02/2016

        Article Optional

      8. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide - Claudia L. Gray, Samantha L. L. Hill, Tim Newbold, Lawrence N. Hudson 12/2016

        Article Optional

      9. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas - William F. Laurance, D. Carolina Useche, Julio Rendeiro, Margareta Kalka 2012-9

        Article Optional

      10. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas - Ian D. Craigie, Jonathan E.M. Baillie, Andrew Balmford, Chris Carbone 09/2010

        Article Optional

      11. Working together: A call for inclusive conservation - Heather Tallis, Jane Lubchenco 2014-11-5

        Article Optional

  5. 3. Managing the commons & pastoralist systems 33 items
    Effective interventions for sustainable ecosystem governance require understanding human actions and decision-making. The ‘tragedy of the commons’ is the classic way to envisage the vulnerability of open access resources to overexploitation, but this assumes that individuals act unguided by expectation, rules and institutions. Instead, common property regimes governed by informal institutions which deal with non-cooperation have been shown to successfully sustainably manage resources. We apply this idea to pastoralist land management strategies and look at how rangelands have been managed as common property regimes. Pastoralist systems have generated huge debate about ecosystems, sustainable use and conservation. We will look at how the ways in which ecosystems are modelled and envisaged to function work alongside political interests to shape environmental policy. Focusing in on two groups (Maasai and Tibetans) will look at the kinds of social, economic and environmental challenges that pastoralists are facing, and how they are adapting their livelihoods and lifestyles.
    1. Tutorial readings 16 items
      Questions: How have common property institutions enabled the management of resources? What does current theory and evidence suggest about the ecological dynamics of rangelands? Are grazing and wildlife compatible? What is the evidence for the drivers of degradation? How have environmental, social and policy changes have impacted upon pastoralist institutions, well-being and ecosystems? How are pastoralists adapting and changing their livelihoods and social arrangements?
      1. Rangelands at equilibrium and non-equilibrium: recent developments in the debate - S. Vetter 2005-7

        Article Recommended A clearly written synthesis outlining the difference between equilibrium and non-equilibrium models and ways forward in the debate

      2. Maasai case study 6 items
      3. Tibetan case study 7 items
        1. Pastoralist Decision-Making on the Tibetan Plateau - Emily T. Yeh, Leah H. Samberg, Gaerrang, Emily Volkmar 2017-6

          Article 

    2. Further readings 17 items
      1. Conservation: linking ecology, economics, and culture - Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Peter Coppolillo 2005

        Book Recommended Chapter 5 on the evolutionary and economic approach to understanding natural resource use

      2. Conservation and sustainable use: a handbook of techniques - E. J. Milner-Gulland, J. M. Rowcliffe 2007

        Book  Chapter 1 on bioeconomic systems; Chapter 4 on assessing sustainability

      3. The Tragedy of the Commons 13/12/1968

        Article  The classic text - worth a revisit.

      4. Intraspecific Prey Choice by Amazonian Hunters [and Comments and Reply] - Michael Alvard, Janis B. Alcorn, Richard E. Bodmer, Raymond Hames, Kim Hill, Jean Hudson, R. Lee Lyman, Rajindra K. Puri, Eric A. Smith and Allyn Maclean Stearman 1995

        Article 

      5. Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action - Elinor Ostrom 2015

        Book Recommended The classic text on common property resource management. Presentation of 8 design principles that contribute to sustainable management.

      6. Ecology of African pastoralist societies - Katherine Homewood c2008

        Book Recommended Chapter 3 and 5

      7. The future of pastoralism: an introduction - J. ZINSSTAG, E. SCHELLING, B. BONFOH, L. CRUMP 01/08/2016

        Article Recommended

      8. Challenges to the ‘new’ rangeland science - Richard M. Cowling 2000-8

        Article  The conventional wisdom.

      9. What drives the vulnerability of pastoralists to global environmental change? A qualitative meta-analysis - Feliu López-i-Gelats, Evan D.G. Fraser, John F. Morton, Marta G. Rivera-Ferre 07/2016

        Article 

      10. Co-existence of wildlife and pastoralism on extensive rangelands: competition or compatibility? - Maryam Niamir-Fuller, Carol Kerven, Robin Reid, Eleanor Milner-Gulland 2012

        Article 

  6. 4. Poverty, community-based conservation & justice 2 items
    Patterns of biodiversity are skewed towards rural areas of the Global South, with implications for the social justice of conservation. The question of how to reconcile conservation and human development is a key policy issue. But how does the concept of ‘win-win’ or pro-poor conservation really play out in practice? This lecture will look at the theory behind community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), and the evidence for how it works on the ground. We will also explore the broader concepts of human well-being and equity/justice as holistic models of social development.
    1. Tutorial readings 2 items
      Questions: What is the theory behind community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)? How does it play out on the ground? What is the community in CBNRM? Who benefits and who loses? What are the processes of inclusion and exclusion in participation? What is the potential for a refocus on equity and justice to support better outcomes for people and biodiversity?
      1. Case studies 0 items
    2. Further readings 0 items
  7. 5. Indigenous peoples & 'traditional ecological knowledge' 27 items
    The concept of ‘traditional ecological knowledge’ often promotes indigenous people as models of conservation. This week we look at how indigenous peoples and the conservation agenda have become intimately linked. We examine the concept of indigeneity and the politics involved and trace the changes in conservation policy and practice regarding indigenous peoples. We look at how different scholars have understood indigenous knowledge and the complexities involved in efforts to link scientific and local knowledge systems in natural resource management.
    1. Tutorial readings 9 items
      Questions: How / does indigenous ecological knowledge differ from scientific knowledge? What are that aims and benefits of projects aiming to integrate knowledge types and produce co-management arrangements? What is the role of power and politics in such projects? What outcomes do they have? What is the potential for more socially just processes of engagement with indigenous knowledge and peoples for sustainability?
      1. Perceiving the Environment in Finnish Lapland - TIM INGOLD, TERHI KURTTILA 11/2000

        Article Recommended

      2. Co-management and the co-production of knowledge: Learning to adapt in Canada's Arctic - Derek Armitage, Fikret Berkes, Aaron Dale, Erik Kocho-Schellenberg 2011-8

        Article Recommended

      3. Speaking of Fire: Reflexive Governance in Landscapes of Social Change and Shifting Local Identities - Iokiñe Rodríguez, Bjørn Sletto, Bibiana Bilbao, Isabelle Sánchez-Rose 03/2013

        Article Recommended

      4. Towards an agroecology of knowledges: Recognition, cognitive justice and farmers’ autonomy in France - Brendan Coolsaet 10/2016

        Article Recommended AgroBio Perigord in France which promotes conservation of locally adapted food crop varieties.

      5. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management - Henrik Moller, Fikret Berkes, Philip O'Brian Lyver, Mina Kislalioglu 2004

        Article Recommended

    2. Further readings 18 items
      1. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation - Michael C. Gavin, Joe McCarter, Aroha Mead, Fikret Berkes 03/2015

        Article 

      2. Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation - Madhav Gadgil, Fikret Berkes and Carl Folke 1993

        Article 

      3. Misreading the African landscape: society and ecology in a forest-savanna mosaic - James Fairhead, Melissa Leach 1996

        Book 

      4. Beyond ritual and economics: Maasai lion hunting and conservation politics - Mara J. Goldman, Joana Roque de Pinho, Jennifer Perry 10/2013

        Article 

      5. The Importance of Taboos and Social Norms to Conservation in Madagascar - JULIA P. G. JONES, MIJASOA M. ANDRIAMAROVOLOLONA, NEAL HOCKLEY 08/2008

        Article 

      6. The Links between Protected Areas, Faiths, and Sacred Natural Sites - NIGEL DUDLEY, LIZA HIGGINS-ZOGIB, STEPHANIE MANSOURIAN 06/2009

        Article 

      7. Decolonizing methodologies: research and Indigenous peoples - Linda Tuhiwai Smith 1999

        Book 

  8. 6. Ecosystem services & the biodiversity economy 31 items
    This week will look at the neo-liberalisation of nature and the emergence of ‘ecosystem services’ as a dominant way to talk about nature. Environmentalists are divided among those who accept monetary valuation of ecosystems as a pragmatic solution, and those who reject it on ethical grounds. We will look in more depth at two types of market-based conservation instruments: payment for ecosystem services (PES) and biodiversity offsetting. Are PES schemes creating new sources of finance for low income countries or ‘crowding out’ other incentives for conservation? What are the practical and political challenges that these interventions present, and what the implications for society’s relationship with non-human nature?
    1. Tutorial readings 14 items
      Questions: What are the practical, conceptual and political challenges of implementing these market based projects? What is the evidence for ecological effectiveness? What are the implications for equity and justice?
      1. Towards a Synthesized Critique of Neoliberal Biodiversity Conservation - Bram Büscher, Sian Sullivan, Katja Neves, Jim Igoe 06/2012

        Article Essential

      2. Enterprising Nature : Economics, Markets and Finance in Global Biodiversity Politics - Dempsey, Jessica

        Book Essential Especially chapter 4 on ecosystem services & chapter 6 on biodiversity finance

      3. Payment for Ecosystem Services 6 items
      4. Biodiversity offsetting 6 items
        1. Taming a Wicked Problem: Resolving Controversies in Biodiversity Offsetting - Martine Maron, Christopher D. Ives, Heini Kujala, Joseph W. Bull 01/06/2016

          Article 

        2. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset - Cécile Bidaud, JuliaP.G. Jones, Kate Schreckenberg, Manolotsoa Rabeharison 2017

          Article 

        3. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies - Rebecca Kormos, Cyril F. Kormos, Tatyana Humle, Annette Lanjouw 2014-11-5

          Article 

    2. Further reading 17 items
      1. Ecosystem Services: Origins, Contributions, Pitfalls, and Alternatives - Sharachchandra Lele, Oliver Springate-Baginski, Roan Lakerveld, Debal Deb 2013

        Article Recommended

      2. Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature? - James Fairhead, Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones 04/2012

        Article Recommended

      3. ECOLOGY: Direct Payments to Conserve Biodiversity - P. J. Ferraro 29/11/2002

        Article  arguing for direct payments rather than ICDP

      4. Talking money: How market-based valuation can undermine environmental protection - Stijn Neuteleers, Bart Engelen 09/2015

        Article  motivational crowding out

      5. Ecosystem-Service Science and the Way Forward for Conservation - P. R. Armsworth, K. M. A. Chan, G. C. Daily, P. R. Ehrlich 18/12/2007

        Article  Pro-ecosystem service framing and market based logic

      6. Selling Nature to save It? Biodiversity and Green Developmentalism - Kathleen McAfee 04/1999

        Article  Early critique of neoliberal conservation

      7. Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice - Joseph W. Bull, K. Blake Suttle, Ascelin Gordon, Navinder J. Singh 2013-7

        Article 

      8. Outcomes from 10 years of biodiversity offsetting - Philip Gibbons, Andrew Macintosh, Amy Louise Constable, Kiichiro Hayashi 27/11/2017

        Article 

      9. Social Equity Matters in Payments for Ecosystem Services - Unai Pascual, Jacob Phelps, Eneko Garmendia, Katrina Brown 01/11/2014

        Article 

  9. 7. Conservation conflict & decision-making + preparation for the negotiation 18 items
    This week we take a broader look at how decisions about natural resource management and conservation are made. There have be increasing calls for policy in conservation to be “evidence based” but does this naively ignore the politics involved in policy making and knowledge production? Conflict is the norm in environmental issues. We look, in particular, at the case of ‘human-wildlife conflict’ and discuss the potential for deliberative and participatory processes to foster the negotiation of solutions.
    1. Tutorial readings 2 items
      1. Acknowledging Conservation Trade-Offs and Embracing Complexity - PAUL D. HIRSCH, WILLIAM M. ADAMS, J. PETER BROSIUS, ASIM ZIA 11/2010

        Article Essential

      2. Conservation, evidence and policy - William. M. Adams, Chris Sandbrook 2013-7

        Article Essential

    2. Further reading 16 items
      1. Hard choices: Making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human well-being - Thomas O. McShane, Paul D. Hirsch, Tran Chi Trung, Alexander N. Songorwa 03/2011

        Article 

      2. The need for evidence-based conservation - William J. Sutherland, Andrew S. Pullin, Paul M. Dolman, Teri M. Knight 2004-6

        Article 

      3. Moments of influence in global environmental governance - Rebecca Witter, Kimberly R. Marion Suiseeya, Rebecca L. Gruby, Sarah Hitchner 02/11/2015

        Article 

      4. Resolving environmental disputes: from conflict to consensus - Roger Sidaway 2005

        Book 

      5. Natural enemies: people-wildlife conflicts in anthropological perspective - John Knight, European Association of Social Anthropologists 2000

        Book 

      6. Friction: an ethnography of global connection - Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing c2005

        Book 

      7. Learning about social-ecological trade-offs - Diego Galafassi, Tim M. Daw, Lydiah Munyi, Katrina Brown 2017

        Article Recommended

      8. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts - Steve M. Redpath, Juliette Young, Anna Evely, William M. Adams 2013-2

        Article 

  10. 8 Understanding and tackling illegal wildlife hunting and trade 0 items
    Wildlife is an important source of protein and income for millions of people. Species are becoming threatened as demand increases in urban population and globally for meat, luxury products and medicines. Focusing on illegal wildlife hunting in Africa, we look at the factors driving harvesting of species, the economics of exploitation, and sustainability of current patterns.
    1. Tutorial readings 0 items
      Questions: What are the economic, cultural and political factors driving harvesting patterns? How is sustainability understood? What is the relationship between poverty and exploitation? How effective are current strategies and what are their impacts on communities?
  11. 9. The stakeholder negotiation exercise 0 items
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