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  1. ANTH0076 Course Information 5 items
    1. Tutor details 1 item
      1. Dr Emily Woodhouse

        Anthropology Department, Room 121

        e.woodhouse@ucl.ac.uk

        Office hours: Wednesdays 11-12; Fridays 3-4pm

    2. Teaching schedule 1 item
      1. Lectures: Tuesdays 11am-1pm, Taviton (16) 432

        Tutorials: Fridays 10am, 11am, 1pm - check your timetable for the room

    3. Course objectives 1 item
      1.  

        The course aims to bring a multi-disciplinary perspective to social-ecological systems, resource use practices, and nature conservation problems and practice. The course is theoretically grounded in political ecology but will draw upon a diverse range of literature to understand environmental behaviour and the socio-political contexts which shape the problems conservation aims to solve, and the way it is practiced. Students will gain an understanding of a range of contemporary issues and debates including: how conservation aims should be defined and by who, the increasing marketisation of nature, social justice impacts of interventions, as well as specific problems such as the illegal wildlife hunting and emerging initiatives like biodiversity offsetting.

        Aims:

        • Introduce students to a multi-disciplinary approach, relevant theoretical frameworks and case studies, in order to critically examine human-ecosystem relationships and conservation problems
        • Provide students with awareness and understanding of key issues and developments in the practice and politics of conservation
        • Enable students to apply their theory and knowledge in order to analyse multi-dimensional environmental issues and engage in contemporary debates in conservation and sustainability

         

    4. Course schedule 1 item
      1. 1. Introduction: Human impacts on ecosystems & biodiversity

        2. Conservation: definitions, history and current practices

        3: Managing the commons & pastoralist systems

        4. Community-based conservation, poverty and justice

        5. Indigenous peoples & 'traditional ecological knowledge'

        READING WEEK

        6. Ecosystem services & the biodiversity economy

        7. Conservation conflict and decision-making

        8. Understanding & tackling illegal wildlife hunting

        9. The stakeholder negotiation exercise

    5. Readings 1 item
      1. All students are expected to normally read three papers or chapters each week ahead of the tutorial. This includes two 'essential readings' and one 'recommended' tutorial reading. Recommended readings should be shared out within the tutorial group in advance. Students should be ready to explain and discuss what they have read and how it helps to answer the questions listed for that tutorial.

        Further readings are either those referenced in the lecture or providing additional detail to the tutorial readings. Students may want to follow these up (especially those listed as 'recommended') if they have a particular interest in the topic and if they plan to answer a question on the topic in the exam.

  2. General literature 13 items
    Some relevant books that you may want to look at. Particular chapters are highlighted in specific weeks.
    1. Conservation: linking ecology, economics, and culture - Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Peter Coppolillo 2005

      Book  an multi-disciplinary text book linking social and natural sciences - with the practical aim of improving conservation

    2. Environmental anthropology: a historical reader - Michael Dove, Carol Carpenter 2008

      Book  The introduction provides a good overview of how environmental anthropology has changed

    3. Political ecology: a critical introduction - Paul Robbins 2012

      Book  an accessible intro to the expanding body of research that uses a political ecology lens

    4. Conservation biology for all - Navjot S. Sodhi, Paul R. Ehrlich 2009

      Book  Available online for free see below: Good short chapters on key topics in conservation - from a more natural science perspective

    5. Conservation Biology for All - Navjot S. Sodhi, Paul R. Ehrlich

      Book Recommended

    6. Conservation is our government now: the politics of ecology in Papua New Guinea - Paige West 2006

      Book  a great ethnography about the politics of a conservation and development project

    7. The Big Conservation Lie - John Mbaria 15 Mar. 2017

      Book  a recent (and polemical) critique of the African conservation paradigm and its colonial roots

    8. Justice as Motive - Adrian, Martin

      Chapter  Recent book putting forward a strong argument that biodiversity conservation should be informed by social justice approaches

    9. From 'conservation and development' to 'conservation and justice' - Adrian, Martin

      Chapter Recommended

    10. Literature on anthropology and conservation 4 items
      1. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation - Nathan J. Bennett, Robin Roth, Sarah C. Klain, Kai M. A. Chan 02/2017

        Article 

      2. Seeing (and Doing) Conservation Through Cultural Lenses - Richard B. Peterson, Diane Russell, Paige West, J. Peter Brosius 2010-1

        Article 

  3. 1 Introduction: Human impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity 27 items
    After a general introduction to the course aims and approach, we will begin by taking a broad scale examination of humans as drivers of ecosystem change and biodiversity loss, from prehistory to the present day. We look at ways to understand and measure impact, and what the drivers of biodiversity loss are. Are the impacts on ecosystems and the climate so dramatic that we should consider ourselves in a new epoch – the Anthropocene? The theoretical perspective of political ecology will also be introduced.
    1. Tutorial readings 7 items
      Questions: How should we characterise and measure ecological degradation? What are some of the complexities involved? What is the evidence that the Earth is undergoing a 6th mass extinction? Is species extinction the best way to measure biodiversity loss? What is biodiversity and why is it important? What are some of the key drivers and processes involved in biodiversity loss and ecosystem change?
      1. Defaunation in the Anthropocene - R. Dirzo, H. S. Young, M. Galetti, G. Ceballos 25/07/2014

        Article Essential

      2. Political ecology: a critical introduction - Paul Robbins 2012 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential

      3. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction - G. Ceballos, P. R. Ehrlich, A. D. Barnosky, A. Garcia 19/06/2015

        Article Recommended

      4. Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship - Georgina M. Mace, Ken Norris, Alastair H. Fitter 2012-1

        Article Recommended

      5. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being - Gretta T. Pecl, Miguel B. Araújo, Johann D. Bell, Julia Blanchard 31/03/2017

        Article Recommended

      6. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations - M. Lenzen, D. Moran, K. Kanemoto, B. Foran 2012-6

        Article Recommended

      7. A Cross-National Analysis of How Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss - Tim G. Holland, Garry D. Peterson, Andrew Gonzalez 10/2009

        Article Recommended

    2. Further readings 20 items
      1. The human planet: how we created the anthropocene - Simon L. Lewis, Mark Maslin 2018

        Book Recommended

      2. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration - Will Steffen, Wendy Broadgate, Lisa Deutsch, Owen Gaffney 04/2015

        Article Recommended

      3. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis

        Document Recommended Biodiversity synthesis for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

      4. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change - C. Sandom, S. Faurby, B. Sandel, J.-C. Svenning 04/06/2014

        Article Recommended

      5. The biomass distribution on Earth - Yinon M. Bar-On, Rob Phillips, Ron Milo 19/06/2018

        Article 

      6. Getting the measure of biodiversity - Andy Purvis, Andy Hector 2000-5

        Article Recommended

      7. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities - Norman Myers, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca 2000-2-24

        Article 

      8. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? - Anthony D. Barnosky, Nicholas Matzke, Susumu Tomiya, Guinevere O. U. Wogan 2011-3-3

        Article 

      9. Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time - M. Vellend, L. Baeten, I. H. Myers-Smith, S. C. Elmendorf 26/11/2013

        Article 

  4. 2 Conservation: definitions, history and current practices 22 items
    This week we examine the question of what constitutes conservation by humans. We look at how conservation is affected by different understandings of what nature is, and how ecosystems work. Third, we trace the history of the modern conservation movement from its colonial roots and the preservation of wilderness, which continue to influence thought and practice today in the form of protected areas, to sustainable use, and broader ecosystem approaches and community-based conservation
    1. Tutorial readings 6 items
      Questions: What constitutes conservation? How is nature conceptualised by conservationists and how does that affect the practice of conservation? How have these ideas changed through time? Where are the main points of conflict? How has colonial history shaped conservation practice? How does acceptance of the Anthropocene affect ideas and practice of conservation? How can the different ideas of conservation be reconciled?
      1. Poachers to Partners - W. M. Adams

        Chapter Essential Digitised Reading

      2. What Is Conservation Science? - Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier 11/2012

        Article Recommended A mainstream contemporary view of the 'new conservation'

      3. The “New Conservation” - Michael Soule 10/2013

        Article Recommended Opinion piece arguing for 'traditional' conservation

      4. What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Biodiversity Conservation in the Anthropocene? - George Holmes 2015-01-1

        Article Recommended How is the anthropocene concept being used in conservation?

    2. Further readings 16 items
      1. Imposing wilderness: struggles over livelihood and nature preservation in Africa - Roderick P. Neumann c1998

        Book Recommended

      2. Whose conservation? - G. M. Mace 26/09/2014

        Article Recommended

      3. Half-Earth or Whole Earth? Radical ideas for conservation, and their implications - Bram Büscher, Robert Fletcher, Dan Brockington, Chris Sandbrook 07/2017

        Article Recommended

      4. Conservation and Subsistence in Small-Scale Societies - Eric Alden Smith, Mark Wishnie 21/10/2000

        Article Optional

      5. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services - Robert Costanza, Rudolf de Groot, Paul Sutton, Sander van der Ploeg 05/2014

        Article Optional

      6. What is conservation? - Chris Sandbrook 10/2015

        Article Optional

      7. Opinion: Why protect nature? Rethinking values and the environment - Kai M. A. Chan, Patricia Balvanera, Karina Benessaiah, Mollie Chapman 09/02/2016

        Article Optional

      8. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide - Claudia L. Gray, Samantha L. L. Hill, Tim Newbold, Lawrence N. Hudson 12/2016

        Article Optional

      9. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas - William F. Laurance, D. Carolina Useche, Julio Rendeiro, Margareta Kalka 2012-9

        Article Optional

      10. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas - Ian D. Craigie, Jonathan E.M. Baillie, Andrew Balmford, Chris Carbone 09/2010

        Article Optional

      11. Working together: A call for inclusive conservation - Heather Tallis, Jane Lubchenco 2014-11-5

        Article Optional

  5. 3. Managing the commons & pastoralist systems 33 items
    Effective interventions for sustainable ecosystem governance require understanding human actions and decision-making. The ‘tragedy of the commons’ is the classic way to envisage the vulnerability of open access resources to overexploitation, but this assumes that individuals act unguided by expectation, rules and institutions. Instead, common property regimes governed by informal institutions which deal with non-cooperation have been shown to successfully sustainably manage resources. We apply this idea to pastoralist land management strategies and look at how rangelands have been managed as common property regimes. Pastoralist systems have generated huge debate about ecosystems, sustainable use and conservation. We will look at how the ways in which ecosystems are modelled and envisaged to function work alongside political interests to shape environmental policy. Focusing in on two groups (Maasai and Tibetans) will look at the kinds of social, economic and environmental challenges that pastoralists are facing, and how they are adapting their livelihoods and lifestyles.
    1. Tutorial readings 14 items
      Questions: How have common property institutions enabled the management of resources? What does current theory and evidence suggest about the ecological dynamics of rangelands? Are grazing and wildlife compatible? What is the evidence for the drivers of degradation? How have environmental, social and policy changes impacted upon pastoralist institutions, well-being and ecosystems? How are pastoralists adapting and changing their livelihoods and social arrangements?
      1. Rangelands at equilibrium and non-equilibrium: recent developments in the debate - S. Vetter 2005-7

        Article Recommended An additional reading for those needing more on the difference between equilibrium and non-equilibrium models

      2. Maasai case study 6 items
      3. Tibetan case study 5 items
        1. Pastoralist Decision-Making on the Tibetan Plateau - Emily T. Yeh, Leah H. Samberg, Gaerrang, Emily Volkmar 2017-6

          Article Recommended

    2. Further readings 19 items
      1. Effective conservation depends upon understanding human behaviour - Freya A.V. St John, Aidan M. Keane, Eleanor J. Milner-Gulland

        Chapter Recommended A readable overview of different models to understand human behaviour in a conservation context

      2. Conservation and Self-Interest - Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Peter Coppolillo

        Chapter Recommended Chapter 5 on the evolutionary and economic approach to understanding natural resource use

      3. Pastoral Environments, Constraints and Strategies - Katherine, Homewood

        Chapter Recommended

      4. Pastoral Livelihoods & Economy - Katherine, Homewood

        Chapter Recommended

      5. Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action - Elinor Ostrom 2015

        Book Recommended The classic text on common property resource management. Presentation of 8 design principles that contribute to sustainable management.

      6. Co-existence of wildlife and pastoralism on extensive rangelands: competition or compatibility? - Maryam Niamir-Fuller, Carol Kerven, Robin Reid, Eleanor Milner-Gulland 2012

        Article Recommended Overview on the potential compatibility of wildlife conservation and pastoralism

      7. The Tragedy of the Commons 13/12/1968

        Article Optional The classic text - worth a revisit.

      8. Intraspecific Prey Choice by Amazonian Hunters [and Comments and Reply] - Michael Alvard, Janis B. Alcorn, Richard E. Bodmer, Raymond Hames, Kim Hill, Jean Hudson, R. Lee Lyman, Rajindra K. Puri, Eric A. Smith and Allyn Maclean Stearman 1995

        Article Optional

      9. Why hunters gather: optimal foraging and the Aché of Eastern Paraguay - Kristen Hawkes, Kim Hill, James F. O'Connell 05/1982

        Article Optional

      10. A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting - R, Damania, E.J, Milner-Gulland, D. J, Crookes 02 February 2005

        Article Optional

      11. 'Unused' Land and Unfulfilled Promises: Justifications for Displacing Communities in East Africa - John G. Galaty 01/01/2014

        Article Optional An interesting paper on the narratives underlying pastoral land grabs in East Africa

      12. Challenges to the ‘new’ rangeland science - Richard M. Cowling 2000-8

        Article Optional The conventional wisdom.

      13. New Perspectives on Sustainable Grazing Management in Arid Zones of Sub-Saharan Africa - Gufu Oba, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Walter J. Lusigi 2000

        Article Optional Referenced in the lecture

      14. What drives the vulnerability of pastoralists to global environmental change? A qualitative meta-analysis - Feliu López-i-Gelats, Evan D.G. Fraser, John F. Morton, Marta G. Rivera-Ferre 07/2016

        Article Optional An overview of the evidence on vulnerability suggesting that livelihood options of pastoralists are generally becoming narrower.

  6. 4. Poverty, community-based conservation & justice 27 items
    Patterns of biodiversity are skewed towards rural areas of the Global South, with implications for the social justice of conservation. The question of how to reconcile conservation and human development is a key policy issue. But how does the concept of ‘win-win’ or pro-poor conservation really play out in practice? This lecture will look at the theory behind community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), and the evidence for how it works on the ground. We will also explore the broader concepts of human well-being and equity/justice as holistic models of social development.
    1. Tutorial readings 8 items
      Questions: What is the theory behind community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)? How does it play out on the ground? How may these projects have unintended social consequences? Is it possible to achieve win-win outcomes? What is the community in CBNRM? Who benefits and who loses? What are the processes of inclusion and exclusion in participation? What is the potential for a refocus on equity and justice to support better outcomes for people and biodiversity?
      1. Poverty and protected areas: An evaluation of a marine integrated conservation and development project in Indonesia - Georgina G. Gurney, Joshua Cinner, Natalie C. Ban, Robert L. Pressey 05/2014

        Article Recommended

    2. Further readings 19 items
      1. From hope to crisis and back again? A critical history of the global CBNRM narrative - Wolfram Dressler, Bram Buscher, Michael Schoon, Dan Brockington 2010-3

        Article Recommended

      2. Justice as Motive - Adrian Martin

        Chapter Recommended

      3. From 'conservation and development' to 'conservation and justice' - Adrian, Martin

        Chapter Recommended

      4. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas - J. A. Oldekop, G. Holmes, W. E. Harris, K. L. Evans 02/2016

        Article Optional

      5. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand - Paul J Ferraro, Merlin M Hanauer, Daniela A Miteva, Gustavo Javier Canavire-Bacarreza 01/06/2013

        Article Optional

      6. Participation: the new tyranny? - Bill, Cooke, Uma, Kothari 2001

        Book Recommended

  7. 5. Indigenous peoples & 'traditional ecological knowledge' 27 items
    The concept of ‘traditional ecological knowledge’ often promotes indigenous people as models of conservation. This week we look at how indigenous peoples and the conservation agenda have become intimately linked. We examine the concept of indigeneity and the politics involved and trace the changes in conservation policy and practice regarding indigenous peoples. We look at how different scholars have understood indigenous knowledge and the complexities involved in efforts to link scientific and local knowledge systems in natural resource management.
    1. Tutorial readings 7 items
      Questions: How / does indigenous ecological knowledge differ from scientific knowledge? What are that aims and benefits of projects aiming to integrate knowledge types and produce co-management arrangements? What is the role of power and politics in such projects? What outcomes do they have? What is the potential for more socially just processes of engagement with indigenous knowledge and peoples for sustainability?
      1. Justice and conservation: The need to incorporate recognition - Adrian Martin, Brendan Coolsaet, Esteve Corbera, Neil M. Dawson 05/2016

        Article Essential

      2. Perceiving the Environment in Finnish Lapland - Tim Ingold, Terhi Kurttila 11/2000

        Article Recommended

      3. Speaking of Fire: Reflexive Governance in Landscapes of Social Change and Shifting Local Identities - Iokiñe Rodríguez, Bjørn Sletto, Bibiana Bilbao, Isabelle Sánchez-Rose 2018

        Article Recommended

      4. Co-management and the co-production of knowledge: Learning to adapt in Canada's Arctic - Derek Armitage, Fikret Berkes, Aaron Dale, Erik Kocho-Schellenberg 2011-8

        Article Recommended

    2. Further readings 20 items
      1. Decolonizing Conservation | Paige West and John Aini

        Webpage Recommended The text of joint keynote speeches on decolonizing conservation. You can also watch the video of the keynote speech 'Critical Approaches to Dispossession in the Melanesian Pacific: Conservation, Voice, and Collaboration'. Delivered at the Second Biennial Conference of the Political Ecology Network (POLLEN) Oslo, Norway, June 2018 here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ao4vhGdMUo&t=18s.

      2. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation - Michael C. Gavin, Joe McCarter, Aroha Mead, Fikret Berkes 03/2015

        Article 

      3. Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation - Madhav Gadgil, Fikret Berkes and Carl Folke 1993

        Article 

      4. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management - Henrik Moller, Fikret Berkes, Philip O'Brian Lyver, Mina Kislalioglu 2004

        Article Recommended

      5. Misreading the African landscape: society and ecology in a forest-savanna mosaic - James Fairhead, Melissa Leach 1996

        Book 

      6. Beyond ritual and economics: Maasai lion hunting and conservation politics - Mara J. Goldman, Joana Roque de Pinho, Jennifer Perry 10/2013

        Article 

      7. The Importance of Taboos and Social Norms to Conservation in Madagascar - Julia P. G. Jones, Mijasoa M. Andriamarovololona, Neal Hockley 08/2008

        Article 

      8. The Links between Protected Areas, Faiths, and Sacred Natural Sites - Nigel Dudley, Liza Higgins-Zogib, Stephanie Mansourian 06/2009

        Article 

      9. Decolonizing methodologies: research and Indigenous peoples - Linda Tuhiwai Smith 1999

        Book 

  8. 6. Ecosystem services & the biodiversity economy 33 items
    This week will look at the neo-liberalisation of nature and the emergence of ‘ecosystem services’ as a dominant way to talk about nature. Environmentalists are divided among those who accept monetary valuation of ecosystems as a pragmatic solution, and those who reject it on ethical grounds. We will look in more depth at two types of market-based conservation instruments: payment for ecosystem services (PES) and biodiversity offsetting. Are PES schemes creating new sources of finance for low income countries or ‘crowding out’ other incentives for conservation? What are the practical and political challenges that these interventions present, and what the implications for society’s relationship with non-human nature?
    1. Tutorial readings 13 items
      Questions: How do we define 'neoliberal conservation' that includes marketisation and financialisation? What are the arguments for and against market-based approaches? What are some of the theoretical and practical difficulties with such projects? What is the evidence for ecological effectiveness? What are the implications for equity and justice? Read the essential reading and one or two about PES or biodiversity offsetting.
      1. Payment for Ecosystem Services 7 items
        1. A review of the social impacts of neoliberal conservation: Formations, inequalities, contestations - George Holmes, Connor J. Cavanagh 10/2016

          Article Essential An overview of neoliberal conservation in its multiple forms and its impacts

        2. Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism - Nicolás Kosoy, Esteve Corbera 2010

          Article Recommended

        3. Measuring effectiveness, efficiency and equity in an experimental Payments for Ecosystem Services trial - Adrian Martin, Nicole Gross-Camp, Bereket Kebede, Shawn McGuire 09/2014

          Article Recommended

      2. Biodiversity offsetting 6 items
        1. Taming a Wicked Problem: Resolving Controversies in Biodiversity Offsetting - Martine Maron, Christopher D. Ives, Heini Kujala, Joseph W. Bull 01/06/2016

          Article Recommended

        2. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset - Cécile Bidaud, Julia. P.G. Jones, Kate Schreckenberg, Manolotsoa Rabeharison 2017

          Article Recommended

        3. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies - Rebecca Kormos, Cyril F. Kormos, Tatyana Humle, Annette Lanjouw 2014-11-5

          Article Recommended

    2. Further reading 20 items
      1. Towards a Synthesized Critique of Neoliberal Biodiversity Conservation - Bram Büscher, Sian Sullivan, Katja Neves, Jim Igoe 06/2012

        Article Recommended Quite a tough read - for those interested in going into the Marxist critiques in more depth

      2. Ecosystem Services: Origins, Contributions, Pitfalls, and Alternatives - Sharachchandra Lele, Oliver Springate-Baginski, Roan Lakerveld, Debal Deb 2013

        Article Recommended

      3. Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature? - James Fairhead, Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones 04/2012

        Article Recommended

      4. Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice - Joseph W. Bull, K. Blake Suttle, Ascelin Gordon, Navinder J. Singh 2013

        Article 

      5. Direct Payments to Conserve Biodiversity - P. J. Ferraro 29/11/2002

        Article  arguing for direct payments rather than ICDP

      6. Talking money: How market-based valuation can undermine environmental protection - Stijn Neuteleers, Bart Engelen 09/2015

        Article  motivational crowding out

      7. Ecosystem-Service Science and the Way Forward for Conservation - P. R. Armsworth, K. M. A. Chan, G. C. Daily, P. R. Ehrlich 18/12/2007

        Article  Pro-ecosystem service framing and market based logic

      8. Selling out on nature - Douglas J. McCauley 7th September 2006

        Article Recommended

      9. Selling Nature to save It? Biodiversity and Green Developmentalism - Kathleen McAfee 04/1999

        Article  Early critique of neoliberal conservation

      10. Outcomes from 10 years of biodiversity offsetting - Philip Gibbons, Andrew Macintosh, Amy Louise Constable, Kiichiro Hayashi February 2018

        Article 

      11. Social Equity Matters in Payments for Ecosystem Services - Unai Pascual, Jacob Phelps, Eneko Garmendia, Katrina Brown 01/11/2014

        Article 

  9. 7. Conservation conflict & decision-making + preparation for the negotiation 15 items
    This week we take a broader look at how decisions about natural resource management and conservation are made. There have be increasing calls for policy in conservation to be “evidence based” but does this naively ignore the politics involved in policy making and knowledge production? Conflict is the norm in environmental issues. We look, in particular, at the case of ‘human-wildlife conflict’ and discuss the potential for deliberative and participatory processes to foster the negotiation of solutions.
    1. Tutorial readings 2 items
      1. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts - Steve M. Redpath, Juliette Young, Anna Evely, William M. Adams 2013

        Article Essential

      2. Conservation, evidence and policy - William. M. Adams, Chris Sandbrook 2013

        Article Essential

    2. Further reading 13 items
      1. Acknowledging Conservation Trade-Offs and Embracing Complexity - Paul D. Hirsch, William M. Adams, J. Peter Brosius, Asim Zia 11/2010, 2011

        Article Recommended

      2. Hard choices: Making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human well-being - Thomas O. McShane, Paul D. Hirsch, Tran Chi Trung, Alexander N. Songorwa 03/2011

        Article Optional

      3. The need for evidence-based conservation - William J. Sutherland, Andrew S. Pullin, Paul M. Dolman, Teri M. Knight 2004

        Article Optional

      4. Resolving environmental disputes: from conflict to consensus - Roger Sidaway 2005

        Book Optional

      5. Natural enemies: people-wildlife conflicts in anthropological perspective - John Knight, European Association of Social Anthropologists 2000

        Book Optional

      6. Learning about social-ecological trade-offs - Diego Galafassi, Tim M. Daw, Lydiah Munyi, Katrina Brown 2017

        Article Recommended

  10. 8 Understanding and tackling illegal wildlife hunting and trade 20 items
    Wildlife is an important source of protein and income for millions of people. Species are becoming threatened as demand increases in urban populations and globally for meat, luxury products and medicines. Focusing on illegal wildlife hunting in Africa including wild meat and the global trade in wildlife products, we look at the factors driving harvesting of species, the economics of exploitation, and sustainability of current patterns. What are the potential solutions to tackle unsustainable exploitation?
    1. Tutorial readings 8 items
      (read the essential reading and 1 or 2 of the other 'recommended' ones) What is the difference between subsistence and commercial species harvesting? What are the economic, cultural and political factors working at different scales to drive harvesting patterns? What is the relationship between poverty and species exploitation? What is the relationship to conflict? What should be the relative roles of enforcement, demand reduction, positive incentives and poverty reduction in tackling illegal hunting? How effective are current strategies and what are their impacts on communities?
      1. Poaching is more than an Enforcement Problem - Daniel W. S. Challender, Douglas C. MacMillan 09/2014

        Article Essential

      2. Economic and geographic drivers of wildlife consumption in rural Africa - J. S. Brashares, C. D. Golden, K. Z. Weinbaum, C. B. Barrett 23/08/2011

        Article Recommended

      3. Conservation, crime and communities: case studies of efforts to engage local communities in tackling illegal wildlife trade

        Article Recommended Pick a few case studies from this document to read and share with the tutorial group

    2. Further reading 12 items
      1. Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals - William J. Ripple, Katharine Abernethy, Matthew G. Betts, Guillaume Chapron 19/10/2016

        Article 

      2. The sleeping policeman: understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation - A. Keane, J. P. G. Jones, G. Edwards-Jones, E. J. Milner-Gulland 04/2008

        Article 

      3. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting - Rosaleen Duffy, Freya A. V. St John, Bram Büscher, Dan Brockington 02/2016

        Article 

      4. The militarization of anti-poaching: undermining long term goals? - Rosaleen Duffy, Freya A. V. St John, Bram Buscher, Dan Brockington 12/2015

        Article 

      5. Tools and terms for understanding illegal wildlife trade - Jacob Phelps, Duan Biggs, Edward L Webb 11/2016

        Article 

      6. The empty forest revisited - David S. Wilkie, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Carlos A. Peres, Andrew A. Cunningham 03/2011

        Article Optional

      7. Wildlife decline and social conflict - J. S. Brashares, B. Abrahms, K. J. Fiorella, C. D. Golden 25/07/2014

        Article 

      8. Legal Trade of Africa's Rhino Horns - D. Biggs, F. Courchamp, R. Martin, H. P. Possingham 01/03/2013

        Article 

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