Created:
15/07/2013 15:24:15
Last updated:
04/02/2014 17:12:07
This list relates to the academic year Academic Year 2013/14 which ended on 01/07/2014
This list has a newer version. Click here to view
This list has been archived
  1. Introductory readings and online references 9 items
      • There are a number of good books that provide good introductions to lithic technology, terminology and methods of analysis.
      • If you are interested in lithic analysis, the Andrefsky, Holdaway and Stern, Odell and Inizan are good. For those of you who wish to try your hand at flint knapping, then the Whittaker is a useful reference.

    1. Lithics: macroscopic approaches to analysis - Andrefsky, William c2005

      Book 

    2. A record in stone: the study of Australia's flaked stone artefacts - Holdaway, Simon, Stern, Nicola c2004, 2007

      Book 

    3. Lithic analysis - Odell, George H. c2004

      Book 

    4. Flintknapping: making and understanding stone tools - Whittaker, John C. 1994

      Book 

    5. The following articles give a good overview of the topic: 3 items
  2. Week 1: Jan 13 METHODS OF ANALYSIS 22 items
    1. Norah Moloney (UCL)

      In this session we will discuss methods of lithic analysis, with a focus on the value and reason for employing particular methods. We will review the technological characteristics of knapped stone, as well as the basic definitions and terminology.

       

    2. Reading 8 items
      You will find any of the following useful:
      1. Ch.5: Flake debitage attributes - William Andrefsky

        Chapter 

      2. A record in stone: the study of Australia's flaked stone artefacts - Holdaway, Simon, Stern, Nicola c2004, 2007

        Book  ch. 3. Attributes used in describing flakes; ch. 4. Attributes used in describing tools; ch. 5. Attributes used in describing cores

      3. The technology of knapped stone: followed by a multilingual vocabulary arabic, english, french, german, greek, italian, russian, spanish - Inizan, Marie-Louise, Roche, Hélène, Tixier, Jacques, Reduron-Ballinger, Michèle 1992

        Book  This takes a while to download

      4. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - Shea, John J. 2013

        Book 

      5. The biography of flint tools: methods of study - A.L. van Gijn

        Chapter 

    3. Further reading 13 items
      1. The mechanics of flaking - B. Cotterell, J. Kamminga

        Chapter 

      2. The Formation of Flakes - Brian Cotterell and Johan Kamminga

        Article 

      3. The Effect of Hammer Mass and Velocity on Flake Mass - Harold L. Dibble, Andrew Pelcin 1995-5

        Article  Online resource

      4. New experimental evidence on the relation between percussion flaking and flake variation - Harold L. Dibble, John C. Whittaker 1981-9

        Article  Online resource

      5. Stone tools - R. Harrison

        Chapter 

      6. Ch. 3: Knapping - Marie-Louise Inizan et al.

        Chapter 

      7. A geometric index of reduction for unifacial stone tools - Steven L. Kuhn 1990-9

        Article  Online resource

  3. Week 2: Jan 20 RAW MATERIAL STUDIES 43 items
    1. Elizabeth Bloxam  (UCL)

       The extraction of key raw materials for products such as tools, building elements and ornamental objects, is the beginning of a long sequence of events that creates an ancient production landscape. This lecture will discuss approaches to the visualisation of the often complex material remains that can constitute these archaeological landscapes (quarries and mines) in Egypt. We will consider how technologies of stone extraction can be interpreted from the archaeological record and its implications in how we understand the social context and organisation of these activities. This lecture will be followed by a practical object handling session.

    2. Reading 14 items
      1. Characterisation of complex quarry landscapes : an example from the West Bank quarries, Aswan, QuarryScapes - E. Bloxam et al. 2007

        Document  YOU WILL ALSO NEED TO DOWNLOAD MAPSHEETS 1 AND 2 FROM http://www.quarryscapes.no/publications.php

      2. Miners and mistresses: Middle Kingdom mining on the margins - E. Bloxam 2006-06-01

        Article  Online resource

      3. Interpreting the axe trade: production and exchange in Neolithic Britain - Bradley, Richard, Edmonds, M. R. 1993

        Book 

      4. Raw material selectivity of the earliest stone toolmakers at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia - Dietrich Stout, Jay Quade, Sileshi Semaw, Michael J. Rogers 2005-4

        Article  Online resource

    3. Further reading 28 items
      1. Lithic materials and Paleolithic societies - Adams, Brian, Blades, Brooke S. 2009

        Book 

      2. An Alyawara Day: The Stone Quarry - Lewis R. Binford and James F. O'Connell

        Article 

      3. A new programme of obsidian characterization at Çatalhöyük, Turkey - Tristan Carter, Gérard Poupeau, Céline Bressy, Nicholas J.G. Pearce 2006-7

        Article  Online resource

      4. Notes on experiments in flintknapping: the flintknapper's raw materials - D. Crabtree 1967

        Article  This journal only in print at UCL

      5. Prehistoric quarries and lithic production - Ericson, Jonathon E., Purdy, Barbara A. 1984

        Book 

      6. Obsidian Procurement and Distribution in the Tikal-Yaxha Intersite Area of the Central Maya Lowlands - Anabel Ford, Fred Stross, Frank Asaro, Helen V. Michel 1997-3

        Article  Online resource

      7. Chapter 1: Knapper stone - Marie-Louise Inizan et al.

        Chapter 

      8. Lithic Source Use and Paleoarchaic Foraging Territories in the Great Basin - George T. Jones, Charlotte Beck, Eric E. Jones and Richard E. Hughes

        Article 

      9. Projectile technology - Knecht, Heidi c1997

        Book 

      10. An archaeologist's guide to chert and flint - Luedtke, Barbara E., University of California, Los Angeles 1992

        Book 

      11. Flint mines in neolithic Britain - Russell, Miles 2000

        Book 

      12. Raw material selectivity of the earliest stone toolmakers at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia - Dietrich Stout, Jay Quade, Sileshi Semaw, Michael J. Rogers 2005-4

        Article  Online resource

  4. Week 3: Jan. 27 LOWER AND MIDDLE PALAEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGIES 47 items
    1. Norah Moloney (UCL)

       We will discuss the Early Stone Age/Lower Palaeolithic technologies known from 2.60 to c. 0.25 Ma.  These include Mode 1 flake production and Mode 2 shaping of Large Cutting Tools.  We will consider the presence, nature and meaning of variation during this time period.

       

      The Mode 3 technologies, the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe and Middle Stone Age of Africa, are characterised by distinctive set of forms produced by the Levallois technique, a planned method for obtaining predetermined flakes, blades and points. 

    2. Reading for the Mode 1 and Mode 2 technologies 5 items
      1. On questions surrounding the Acheulean ‘tradition’ - Stephen J. Lycett, John A. J. Gowlett 2008-09

        Article  Online resource

      2. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - Shea, John J. 2013

        Book  Chapter 3.

    3. Further readings for Mode 1 and 2 technologies 31 items
      1. The Oldowan: case studies into the earliest Stone Age - Schick, Kathy Diane, Toth, Nicholas Patrick c2006

        Book 

      2. Oldowan behavior and raw material transport: perspectives from the Kanjera Formation - David R. Braun, Thomas Plummer, Peter Ditchfield, Joseph V. Ferraro 2008-8

        Article  Online resource

      3. Oldowan reduction sequences: methodological considerations - David R. Braun, Joanne C. Tactikos, Joseph V. Ferraro, Shira L. Arnow 2008-8

        Article  Online resource

      4. The technology and significance of the Acheulian giant cores of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel - Naama Goren-Inbar, Leore Grosman, Gonen Sharon 2011-8

        Article  Online resources

      5. On questions surrounding the Acheulean ‘tradition’ - Stephen J. Lycett, John A. J. Gowlett 2008-09

        Article  Online resource

      6. Who made stone tools? - M. W. Marke

        Chapter 

      7. Middle Pleistocene handaxes from the Korean Peninsula - Christopher J. Norton, Kidong Bae, John W.K. Harris, Hanyong Lee 2006-11

        Article  Online resource

      8. Large cutting tool variation west and east of the Movius Line - Michael D. Petraglia, Ceri Shipton 2008-12

        Article  Online resource

      9. Continuing Investigations into the Stone Tool-making and Tool-using Capabilities of a Bonobo (Pan paniscus) - Kathy D. Schick, Nicholas Toth, Gary Garufi, E.Sue Savage-Rumbaugh 1999-7

        Article  Online resource

      10. Cultural conservatism and variability in the Acheulian sequence of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov☆ - Gonen Sharon, Nira Alperson-Afil, Naama Goren-Inbar 2011-04

        Article  Online resource

      11. Systematic blade production at late Lower Paleolithic (400–200 kyr) Qesem Cave, Israel - Ron Shimelmitz, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher 2011-10

        Article  Online resource

      12. The evolutionary neuroscience of tool making - Dietrich Stout, Thierry Chaminade 2007-1

        Article  Online resource

      13. Raw material selectivity of the earliest stone toolmakers at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia - Dietrich Stout, Jay Quade, Sileshi Semaw, Michael J. Rogers 2005-4

        Article  Online resource

      14. The early Acheulean in Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania) - Ignacio de la Torre, Rafael Mora, Jorge Martínez-Moreno 2008-6

        Article  Online resource

      15. The Oldowan industry of Peninj and its bearing on the reconstruction of the technological skills of LowerPleistocene hominids - Ignacio de la Torre, Rafael Mora, Manuel Domı́nguez-Rodrigo, Luis de Luque 2003-2

        Article  Online resource

      16. Archaeology and cognitive evolution - Thomas Wynn 2002-6

        Article  Online resource

    4. Reading for Mode 3, Middle Palaeolithic techologies 6 items
      1. Handbook of paleolithic typology - Debénath, André, Dibble, Harold Lewis 1993-

        Book  VOLUME 1: 'LOWER AND MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC OF EUROPE'

      2. The definition and interpretation of Levallois technology - Dibble, Harold Lewis, Bar-Yosef, Ofer 1995

        Book 

      3. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - Shea, John J. 2013

        Book  Chapter 4

    5. Further reading 4 items
      1. The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior - Sally Mcbrearty, Alison S. Brooks 2000-11

        Article  Online resource

      2. Current issues in the Levallois problem - P. Van Peer

        Chapter 

  5. Week 4: Feb 3 UPPER PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC TECHNOLOGIES 27 items
    1. Matt Pope (UCL)

       We will make use of the teaching collection to address the fundamental nuts and bolts of Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic technology. We will consider the defining features of Upper Palaeolithic technology, its evolutionary and chronological context. Consideration will also be given to the possibility of Neanderthal upper Palaeolithic technologies. Then we will look at the basic characteristics of Transitional and Mesolithic Industries. The lecture will focus on North West Europe, with more general consideration of variation elsewhere.

    2. Reading 16 items
      1. Makers of the early Aurignacian of Europe - Steven E. Churchill, Fred H. Smith 2001/03/13

        Article 

      2. A late Neanderthal associated with Upper Palaeolithic artefacts - Jean-Jacques Hublin, Fred Spoor, Marc Braun, Frans Zonneveld 1996-5-16

        Article  Online resource

      3. Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? A Critical Review of the Evidence and Its Interpretation - Francesco d'Errico, Joao Zilhao, Michele Julien, Dominique Baffier 1998-06

        Article  Online resource

      4. The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior - Sally Mcbrearty, Alison S. Brooks 2000-11

        Article  Online resource

      5. The Neanderthal Problem Continued - Paul Mellars 1999-06

        Article  Online resource

      6. Late Stone Age hunters of the British Isles - Smith, Christopher 1992

        Book 

      7. Outils préhistoriques: forme, fabrication, utilisation - Piel-Desruisseaux, Jean-Luc 1986

        Book 

      8. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - Shea, John J. 2013

        Book  Chapter 5

    3. Useful reading: Mesolithic 10 items
      1. The Magdalenian Colonization of Southern Germany - Michael Jochim, Cynthia Herhahn and Harry Starr

        Article 

      2. Microliths and Multiple Authorship - N. Finlay

        Chapter 

      3. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - Shea, John J. 2013

        Book  Chapter 6

  6. Week 5: Feb. 10 POST PALAEOLITHIC LITHIC TECHNOLOGIES OF EGYPT 9 items
    1.  

      Noriyuki Shirai (UCL)

       The Early-Middle Holocene saw fundamental changes not only in global climate and environment but also in human demography and subsistence. New lithic technologies and new types of tools that appeared in this period are called 'Neolithic'. They reflect humans' adaptation to new ecological conditions and subsistence needs, and also indicate new modes of technological knowledge transmission between toolmakers under conditions of increasing population and interaction. The lecture will focus on the Fayum in northern Egypt, where there is good information about the transition from the Epipalaeolithic to Neolithic and the cultural transmission between the Levant and Egypt, and discuss how new lithic technologies and new types of tools appeared and developed. The lecture will be followed by handling of Fayum Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic tools.

    2. Reading 8 items
      1. Holocene Hunter-Gatherers - R. L. Bettinger

        Chapter 

      2. The desert Fayum - Caton-Thompson, Gertrude, Gardner, Elinow W., Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 1934

        Book 

      3. Backed bladelets are a foreign country - A. E. Close

        Chapter 

      4. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic near East: a guide - Shea, John J. 2013

        Book 

  7. Lecture 6: READING WEEK 1 item
    1. No readings for this session

  8. Week 7: Feb. 24 GROUNDSTONE TECHNOLOGY 14 items
    1. Karen Wright (UCL)

       Ground stone artefacts are any artefacts in which abrasion of stone played a key role in manufacture. They have received much less attention than chipped stone artefacts. Many basic questions about technology and analysis are still being worked out. However, ground stone artefact analysis involves many of the same issues that apply to chipped stone. Raw material sources, manufacturing sites and debitage have all been found, whilst ground stone assemblages display chaînes opératoires and other elements well known to lithic analysts generally. In this session we illustrate some of the basic methodologica issues using examples from the Middle East as case studies.

    2. Reading 3 items
      1. Methods of analysis of grinding implements - C. Roubet

        Chapter  Vol.3

      2. Report on Site E-82-1 - C. Roubet

        Chapter  Vol.3

    3. Further reading 10 items
      1. Tool-using and -making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea - Yukimaru Sugiyama, Jeremy Koman 1979-10

        Article  Online resource

      2. Rolling stones: basalt implements as evidence for trade/exchange in the Levantine Epipalaeolithic - M. Mitekufat Haeven et al. 2001

        Article  The journal available in print only at UCL

      3. Dhuweila: ground stone - K. Wright

        Chapter 

      4. Early Holocene Ground Stone Assemblages in the Levant - Katherine I. Wright 1993-01

        Article  Online resource

  9. Week 8: Feb 24 LITHIC ILLUSTRATION AND PRACTICAL OBSERVATION 4 items
    1. Norah Moloney (UCL)

       When we draw tools we are forced to look at them carefully, to 'read' them. By 'reading' them we begin to understand more clearly how they were made, and what has happened to them. This helps in the practical study of the tools themselves, and in understanding lithic illustrations in publications. Artistic proficiency is not a requirement; you need to draw what you see. You will have more practise in drawing during the preparation of the lithic report to be.

    2. Reading (for reference) 3 items
      1. Lithic illustration: drawing flaked stone artifacts for publication - Addington, Lucile R. 1986

        Book 

      2. Archaeological illustration - Adkins, Lesley, Adkins, Roy 1989

        Book 

      3. The illustration of lithic artefacts - Martingell, Hazel, Saville, Alan, Association of Archaeological Illustrators & Surveyors, Lithic Studies Society 1988

        Book 

  10. Week 9: March 3 EXPERIMENTATION IN LITHIC STUDIES / SEMINAR 33 items
    1. Norah Moloney (UCL)

       Experimentation, whether formal or "experiential", is essential to understanding lithic technology and may be used to inform research on issues ranging from production to use, discard, and entry into the archaeological record. Here we will focus on knapping techniques and learning behaviour, discussing controlled experiments in flake detachment, and replication of archaeological materials as well as more general experience with knapping that can be useful in hypothesis generation and archaeological interpretation.

    2. Experimental archaeology in general 12 items
      1. What is experimental archaeology - E. Callahan

        Chapter 

      2. Designing experimental research in archaeology: examining technology through production and use - Ferguson, Jeffrey R. c2010

        Book 

      3. Archaeology and experiment - Jaroslav Malina 1983-01

        Article  Online resource

      4. Introduction - James R. Mathieu

        Chapter 

      5. Introduction to experimental archaeology - Alan K. Outram 2008-03

        Article  Online resource

    3. Lithic technology 4 items
      1. The potential of experiments in lithic technology - Daniel S. Amick, Raymond P. Mauldin

        Chapter 

      2. The Effect of Hammer Mass and Velocity on Flake Mass - Harold L. Dibble, Andrew Pelcin 1995-5

        Article  Online resource

      3. A History of Flint-Knapping Experimentation, 1838-1976 [and Comments and Reply] - L. Lewis Johnson, Jeffery A. Behm, François Bordes, Daniel Cahen, Don E. Crabtree, Dena F. Dincauze, Conran A. Hay, Brian Hayden, Thomas R. Hester, Paul R. Katz, Ruthann Knudson, Francis P. McManamon, S. C. Malik, Hansjürgen Müller-Beck, Mark H. Newcomer, K. Paddayya, Patricia Price-Beggerly, Anthony J. Ranere, H. D. Sankalia and Payson D. Sheets 1978

        Article 

    4. Further reading 16 items
      1. Solutrean laurel leaf production at Maîtreaux: an experimental approach guided by techno-economic analysis - Thierry Aubry, Bruce Bradley, Miguel Almeida, Bertrand Walter 2008-03

        Article 

      2. An experimental investigation of cut mark production and stone tool attrition - David R. Braun, Briana L. Pobiner, Jessica C. Thompson 2008-5

        Article  Online resource

      3. Towards replicating Egyptian predynastic flint knives - Peter Kelterborn 1984-11

        Article  Online resource

      4. Flintknapping: making and understanding stone tools - Whittaker, John C. 1994

        Book 

  11. Week 10: March 10 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF STONE TOOLS /SEMINAR 51 items
    1. Norah Moloney (UCL)                   COURSE EVALUATION

       Usewear analysis has had its peaks and troughs of popularity in the last 20 years moving between episodes of optimism and pessimism. We will consider the methods and objectives of use-wear analysis, and then concentrate on how usewear is able to contribute to studies of human behaviour using a selection of case studies.

    2. Reading 5 items
      1. Tool function: chapter 5 - George H. Odell

        Chapter 

      2. Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis - Dolores R. Piperno, Ehud Weiss, Irene Holst, Dani Nadel 2004-8-5

        Article  Online resource

      3. Experimentation in the Formation of Edge Damage: A New Approach to Lithic Analysis - Ruth Tringham, Glenn Cooper, George Odell, Barbara Voytek and Anne Whitman 1974

        Article 

      4. The biography of flint tools: methods of study - Annelou L. van Gijn

        Chapter 

    3. Further reading 45 items
      1. The Surface Alteration Features of Flint Artefacts as a Record of Environmental Processes - Daniela Burroni, Randolph E. Donahue, A.Mark Pollard, Margherita Mussi 2002-11

        Article  Online resource

      2. Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea - T. P. Denham, S. G. Haberle, C. Lentfer, R. Fullagar, J. Field, M. Therin, N. Porch and B. Winsborough 2003

        Article 

      3. Laser scanning confocal microscopy: a potential technique for the study of lithic microwear - Adrian A. Evans, Randolph E. Donahue 2008-8

        Article  Online reading

      4. Atomic force microscopy of microwear traces on Mousterian tools from Myshtylagty Lagat (Weasel Cave), Russia - Nathan R. Faulks, Larry R. Kimball, Nazim Hidjrati, Tonya S. Coffey 2011-09

        Article  Online resource

      5. Recovery of Mammalian DNA from Middle Paleolithic Stone Tools - Bruce L. Hardy, Rudolf A. Raff, Venu Raman 1997-7

        Article  Online resource

      6. From tool use to site function: use-wear analysis on some final Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Basque country - Ibáñez Estévez, Juan José, González Urquijo, Jesús Emilio 1996

        Book 

      7. Integrating Phytoliths within Use-Wear/Residue Studies of Stone Tools - Lisa Kealhofer, Robin Torrence, Richard Fullagar 1999-5

        Article  Online resource

      8. Microwear polishes on early stone tools from Koobi Fora, Kenya - Lawrence H. Keeley, Nicholas Toth 1981-10-8

        Article  Online resource

      9. Microwear analysis of experimental flint tools: a test case - L.H. Keeley, M.H. Newcomer 1977-3

        Article  Online resource

      10. Verifying the reliability of blood residue analysis on archaeological tools - Brian Kooyman, Margaret E. Newman, Howard Ceri 1992-5

        Article  Online resource

      11. Use-wear analysis of an Amudian laminar assemblage from the Acheuleo-Yabrudian of Qesem Cave, Israel - Cristina Lemorini, Mary C. Stiner, Avi Gopher, Ron Shimelmitz 2006-7

        Article  Digitised reading

      12. Investigating microwear polishes with blind tests - M. Newcomer, R. Grace, R. Unger-Hamilton 1986-5

        Article  Online resource

      13. Early maize agriculture and interzonal interaction in southern Peru - Linda Perry, Daniel H. Sandweiss, Dolores R. Piperno, Kurt Rademaker 2006-3-2

        Article  Online resource

      14. Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest - Dolores R. Piperno, Anthony J. Ranere, Irene Holst, Patricia Hansell 2000-10-19

        Article  Online resource

      15. A study of microscopic polish on flint implements - Levi Sala, Irene 1996

        Book 

      16. Practical quantitative lithic use-wear analysis using multiple classifiers - Nathan E. Stevens, Douglas R. Harro, Alan Hicklin 2010-10

        Article  Online resource

      17. Ancient starch research - Torrence, Robin, Barton, Huw 2006

        Book 

      18. Use-wear analysis of flaked stone tools - Vaughan, Patrick C. 1985

        Book 

  12. Week 11: March 24 SITE FORMATION PROCESSES / STUDENT SEMINAR 20 items
    1. Norah Moloney (UCL)

       Understanding context is paramount before the accurate assessment of lithic material from a technological Perspective can be undertaken. This session will cover basic approaches to the processes underpinning the formation of lithic assemblages as encountered in the archaeological record. It aims to show how a close reading of sedimentary context and the application analytical techniques borrowed from faunal taphonomic and geological studies can elucidate the processes at work in forming an assemblage.  Aspects of in-situ, disturbed and palimpsest signatures will be explored and practical applications of the following techniques undertaken in the class.

       

      • Size Class Distribution: Assesses the relative proportions of different size-classes of artifact. In undisturbed scatters smaller material will always be more abundant than larger pieces in numerical terms. Comparison of size-class distribution curves from excavated assemblages with experimental samples will show if material has been winnowed from, or introduced to, an assemblage by water action
      • Surface Trend Analysis. Spatial separation of different size classes of artefact shows disturbance of knapping scatters by natural or human agents.
      • Artifact orientation: Undisturbed scatters will show no preferred orientation. If any is found it can indicated the scale and direction of fluvial or colluvial movement.
      • Refitting. In knapping artifacts rarely move more than a couple of meters from the tool maker. Excessive refit distances and preferred orientation of refits can indicate disturbance.

    2. Reading 10 items
      1. Excavations at the lower paleolithic site at East Farm, Barnham, Suffolk 1989-94 - Ashton, Nick, Lewis, Simon G., Parfitt, Simon, British Museum 1998

        Book 

      2. Boxgrove: a Middle Pleistocene hominid site at Eastham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex - Roberts, Mark, Parfitt, Simon, Austin, L. A., English Heritage 1999

        Book 

      3. Fitting rocks: lithic refitting examined - Schurmans, Utsav, De Bie, Marc 2007

        Book 

    3. Further reading 9 items
      1. Olorgesailie: archeological studies of a middle Pleistocene lake basin in Kenya - Isaac, Glynn Llywelyn, Isaac, Barbara 1977

        Book 

      2. Making silent stones speak: human evolution and the dawn of technology - Schick, Kathy Diane, Toth, Nicholas Patrick 1995, c1993

        Book 

  13. Miscellaneous 25 items
    1. Reading 4 items
    2. Further reading 21 items
      1. Genderlithics - Joan M. Gero

        Chapter  Digitised reading

      2. The ritualisation of flint - Annelou L. van Gijn

        Chapter 

      3. Flint and identity - Annelou L. van Gijn

        Chapter 

All rights reserved ©